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A LABORATORY MANUAL 

OF 

ANTHROPOMETRY 
WILDER 



A 

LABORATORY MANUAL 

OF 

ANTHROPOMETRY 



<u 



f BY 

HARRIS H! WILDER, PH.D. 

PROFESSOR OF ZOOLOGY, 
SMITH COLLEGE, NORTHAMPTON, MASS. 



WITH 43 ILLUSTRATIONS 




PHILADELPHIA 
P. BLAKISTON'S SON & CO. 

1012 WALNUT STREET 



COPYRIGHT, 1920, BY P. BLAkisiON's SON & Co. 






THK MAIr,K TRESS YORK Y JL 



PREFACE 

It has long been a reproach to American science that now, for many 
years, the branch of Physical Anthropology has been so little cultivated, 
and this the more because of our early prestige in this very field and be- 
cause of our unrivalled opportunities. 

When Morton, in 1839, published his Crania Americana, and followed 
this in 1844 by a similar work, the Crania Aegyptiaca, he gave the United 
States a leading place in the then new science of Craniology, but now 
after eighty years, in this and in related fields, American names are as 
rare in bibliographies as American merchant ships have been until recently 
upon the high seas. With the vast possibilities for ethnological study 
furnished by our aborigines, with the importation in the past of large 
numbers of negroes from Africa, which are now numbered by millions, 
and with the hordes of alien peoples from all parts of the world, who seek 
a foothold in the still new continent, not even Rome herself, in Imperial 
times, could supply such enormous ethnological material, yet the advan- 
tages taken of such opportunities have been but slight. Every large 
European power, and at least one Asiatic one (Japan), has surpassed the 
United States in Anthropometric work. In this line of Anthropometry, 
or Biometric Ethnology, especially, unheeded by and almost unknown to, 
American science, a great body of facts has been compiled in Europe, the 
facts being obtained by means of European instruments, collected by 
means of European technical methods, and rendered significant by means 
of European scholarship. 

Some twenty years ago the growing need of unifying the technical 
measurements, at least those most commonly employed, became more and 
more apparent, and led to the adoption of a set of prescriptions governing 
the more important measurements of the skull, and of the head and facial 
features in the living. This was established at the meeting of 1906 
of the International Congress of Anthropologists, held at Monaco, and 
the Committee consisted of representatives of France, Germany, Switzer- 
land and Italy, but neither England nor America. The official report was 
in French by the Secretary, M. Papillault, and was published in the 
periodical L'Anthropologie. The movement towards a standardization 
of measurements excited a continually increasing interest, and its next 
official manifestation came at the Congress of the same body in 1912, 
meeting at Geneva. The Committee which prepared this report was a 
larger one (24 members), and included, beside the countries represented at 
the former one, Spain, Russia, Great Britain, Russian Poland, Hungary 
and the United States. This second report consisted of standardized 



VI PREFACE 

measurements ol the living body, exclusive of the head and face, which 
had been treated in 1906, and was published officially in foar languages, 
French, German, Italian, and English, but the periodicals in which these 
reports appeared were exclusively European, and the first American re- 
printing was during the present year (1919), when the reports of both 
Congresses appeared in our new Journal of Physical Anthropology, whose 
serial date (Vol. II) suggests the previous years of neglect of this science 
in our country. 

It was with a view to directing a broader American attention to this 
vitally important branch of Anthropology that the present author, some- 
time previous to 1912, drew up, based largel} 7 upon the prescription of 
1906, a set of rules for the guidance of the laboratory student, principally 
along the line of craniometry, and this manuscript was worked over by 
his advanced students and himself, accompanying the actual measurement 
of skulls. The appearance of the second set of rules, the prescription of 
1912, enabled him to add the authoritative rules for the principal measure- 
ments of the living body. Thus the work, tested in the laboratory by 
practical application, assumed somewhere near its present form. 

The granting of a Sabbatical leave in 1913 by the Trustees of Smith 
College enabled the author to visit several of the European laboratories, 
where he had the opportunity of inspecting the practical anthropometric 
work carried on by some of the leading investigators in this field. He 
here takes this opportunity of expressing his sincere thanks to them all, 
who, in the midst of a busy term, found time to demonstrate to him their 
equipment and especially their personal technical methods by actual 
measurements. These include Prof. Fabio Frassetto in Bologna, Prof. 
Otto Schlaginhaufen, the pupil and successor of Prof. Rudolf Martin in 
Zurich, and especially Prof. Eugen Fischer in Freiburg in Breisgau, in 
whose anthropological laboratory he spent several weeks. 

In 1914 appeared the long-awaited book of Prof. Martin, the "Lehr- 
buch der Anthropologie, " only a few months before the bursting of the 
storm-cloud of a well-nigh universal World War, since which communica- 
tion between the anthropologists of the two hemispheres became, for 
four years, all but interrupted. At best, however, this exhaustive text- 
book as it is large and expensive, and in the German language, is more or 
less impractical for the average American student, and while of the great- 
est value to specialists, it does not fill the needs of American Colleges and 
Universities, at least so far as undergraduates are concerned. These 
conditions caused the decision to publish the present volume, which has 
again been thoroughly revised, and is now offered in a somewhat simplified 
form. It consists primarily of the rules for measurements given in the 
two prescriptions of 1906 and 1912, and adds for the convenience of the 
student certain of the most useful indices. An enumeration of instru- 
ments, as employed in various places, is given in the introduction, to- 
gether with a much simplified account of the most generally used mathe- 



PREFACE Vll 

matical methods employed in tabulating and expressing the results of 
measurements, for the especial benefit of that large class of students 
who find their chief interest in the morphological relations of the subjects 
treated, but whose mathematical ability is not great, and who are not 
able readily to follow the more abstruse methods and expositions of them 
made use of by biometricians. 

The student is introduced to the bibliography of the subject by a 
series of footnotes, which are found under each heading, and are intended 
to guide him to certain of the most important papers, generally the ones 
especially followed in this book. From the bibliographies given here, in 
their turn, a more complete knowledge of the literature may be obtained. 

The main work is followed by two appendices, the one (A} giving the 
actual measurements of 93 skulls and skull fragments of Indians from 
Southern New England, the other (B) the bodily proportions of 100 
Smith College Students, both sets of measurements the result of work car- 
ried out in the Smith College Anthropological Laboratory by graduate 
students. These may prove useful as samples of the kind of work treated 
in this manual, and will be of interest to use in comparison with the re- 
sults of the practical reader. 

HARRIS HAWTHORNE WILDER, PH. D. 

SMITH COLLEGE ANTHROPOLOGICAL LABORATORY, 
Northampton, Mass. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTION 1-33 

\/ Historical Development of Anthropometry 1 

Anthropometrical Instruments 8 

Simple Biometrical Methods . . 26-33 

-I. Indices 26 

II. Frequency Curves 27 

III. Arithmetical Mean 29 

IV. Deviation 30 

"V. Coefficient of Variation 32 

PART I. OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OP THE BONES, INCLUDING THE 
SKULL. 

^1. The Skull 33-149 

Orientation 35 

Landmarks 40 

Measurements 48 

Indices 62 

Angles 69 

II. The Vertebral Column, with the Ribs and Sternum 76 

III. Shoulder-girdle 80 

Scapula 80 

Clavicle 83 

IV. Arm and Hand 84 

Humerus 84 

Ulna 88 

Radius 98 

The Bones of the Hand 105 

V. The Pelvic Skeleton, including Hip-girdle and Sacrum 109 

Pelvic Girdle 109 

Sacrum 116 

VI. The Bones of the Leg and Foot 122 

Femur 122 

Patella 129 

Tibia 130 

Fibula 136 

The loot Skeleton in General 136 

Talus 137 

Calcaneus 140 

The Other Tarsal Bones 142 

The Metacarpals and Phalanges 143 

Intermembral Indices 144 

Relation of the lengths of Limb bones to Stature 147 

ix 



X CONTENTS 

PART II. SOMATOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BODY. 

Landmarks 151 

Measurements 155-163 

(a) General Considerations; Position of Subject 155 

(&) Lists of the Usual Measurements 158 

(c) Measurements obtained by Calculation from the above 163 

Indices 164 

APPENDIX A. MEASUREMENTS OF SKULLS OF ABORIGINES OF SOUTHERN NEW 
ENGLAND 169-170 

APPENDIX B. BODILY MEASUREMENTS OF ICO FEMALE COLLEGE STUDENTS 171-185 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FIG. PAGE 

1. (a) Calipers (Craniometer) 9 

(6) Slide compass 9 

2. The Bertillon type of Craniometer 10 

3. Flower's Craniometer 10 

4. Martin's anthropometer, in case 11 

5. Martin's anthropometer, as used in measuring 12 

6. Broca's osteometric board 13 

7. Mollison's attachable goniometer 14 

8. Another view of the same 15 

9. Another view of the same 16 

10. Stationary goniometer of Martin 17 

11. Parallelograph of Martin 18 

12. Cubic craniophore of Martin; two views 21 

13. Wetzel's osteophore 23 

14. Lucae's dioptograph 24 

15. Lissauer's perigraph 25 

16. Broca's stereograph 25 

17. Skull oriented at Camper's horizontal 36 

18. Skull oriented at Geoff. St. Hilaire's horizontal 37 

19. Skull oriented at Cloquet's horizontal 37 

20. Skull oriented at the alveolo-condylar horizontal of Broca 38 

21. Skull oriented at the Frankfort horizontal 39 

22. Landmarks on the skull; frontal aspect 41 

23. Landmarks on the skull; lateral aspect 42 

24. Landmarks about region of eye and nose 43 

25. Landmarks about the palate 44 

26. Measures obtained from the median craniogram 46 

27. Angles obtained upon a median craniogram 72 

28. Angles obtained upon a median sawn section 75 

29. Scapula, showing measurements 81 

30. Clavicle, showing measurements 83 

31. Humerus, showing measurements 85 

32. Humerus, showing torsion 86 

33. Ulna, showing curvature of shaft 91 

34. Ulna, showing joint-axis angle 94 

35. Lateral divergence angle of elbow 95 

36. Curvature of shaft of radius 102 

37. Median curve of sacrum 117 

38. . Medial view of right tibia, showing axes and angles 132 

39. Talus; showing measurements 139 

40. Talus; showing measurements 139 

41. Calcaneus; showing measurements 140 

42. Calcaneus; showing measurements 141 

43. Talo-calcaneus angle 143 



XI 



INTRODUCTION 

THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCIENCE OF 
ANTHROPOMETRY 

When White in 1794, basing his assertions upon the observation of 
both skeletons and living men, made the statement that the forearm of 
negroes, in proportion to the upper arm, was longer than in white men, 
he inaugurated the science of Comparative Racial Anthropometry, and 
showed that there were constant differences in the bodily proportions of 
the various human races. Differences of this sort seem to have been 
unrecognized before this, even by artists and sculptors, who, although 
from the time of the Egyptian and Assyrian carvings had elaborated and 
even emphasized the racial characters of face and head, had given no 
heed to differences in the other parts of the body. It is thus quite pos- 
sible that the classic sculptors of Greece and Rome may have used indif- 
ferently as models their own people and their foreign slaves, which may 
serve to verify and explain the asserted negroid proportions of the Apollo 
Belvidere.* 

The assertion of White was an advance upon new ground, and 
although it was accompanied by neither detailed measurements, calcula- 
tion of averages, or indices, it was yet of great value in the development of 
the subject. After this, however, the work rested for forty-four years, 
when Humphrey, in 1838, made careful measurements, not only of 
humerus and radius, but of femur and tibia also, in twenty-five skeletons 
of negroes and the same number of those of white men. He compared 
each individual length with the total height of the skeleton from which 
it came, taken as 100, and thus obtained indices which could be directly 
compared. His results corroborated White regarding the long forearm 
(radius) of negroes, and found a similar greater length in the lower leg 
(tibia) of the same race, as compared with the whites. He found, for 
example, that the average humerus in the two races bore practically the 
same proportion to the total height, 19.52% in negroes and 19.54% in 
whites, while the figures for the radius, also expressed in a percentage of 
the total height, were respectively 15.16% and 14.15%. In the same 
way the figures for the femur were 27.40 and 27.51, a negligible differ- 
ence, while those for the tibia were 23.23 and 22.15. 

But by this time other anthropologists had become interested in 
racial differences in bodily proportion, and under the critical scrutiny 
of Broca this subject received still more careful treatment. He pointed 

* Perhaps a Greek head on a negro body, as has often been asserted. 

1 



2 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

out the fact that a total height obtained from an articulated skeleton 
depended too much upon the preparator who put the bones together, and 
hence disregarded this uncertain measurement in favor of one involving 
the length of a single long bone, or of two combined. He thus substi- 
tuted for Humphrey's standard, now the length of the femur, now that of 
the radius, or again the combined lengths of humerus and radius or femur 
and tibia, with each of which, in turn, with a value of 100, the lengths of 
the other long arm and leg bones was compared. 

The next great advance in treating the general subject of racial 
anthropometry was the realization of the fact that many of the bones 
could be measured practically as well in the living subject by ascer- 
taining the precise location of their termini by palpation; also that cer- 
tain integumental landmarks, not associated with the skeleton, such as 
the umbilicus and the nipples, were of considerable value in the study 
of proportions. This line of work, the anthropometry of the living 
subject, developed naturally in the field, as osteometry had developed in 
the museum, and was the direct result of the series of great scientific 
voyages, like those of the Novara and the Challenger, characteristic 
of the last third of the Nineteenth Century. Naturally in the develop- 
ment of physical ethnology the facial features had long received much 
attention, and had become the subject of careful measurements, with aver- 
ages and indices, and the extension of this work to the rest of the body 
naturally followed. 

During this epoch, in 1882, to be precise, a young anthropologist, 
M. Alphonse Bertillon, noticing the individual character of bodily 
measurements, saw in them important data for the solution of the many 
difficulties which, up to this time, confronted the Judicial arm of the 
French Government, that of establishing the individual identity of crimi- 
nals, and inaugurated the famous system of "Bertillonage," based upon 
eleven easily taken measurements, a system that has now for many years 
yielded the most satisfactory results, and is still in general us , although 
now being rapidly replaced by the Finger-print System of Galton and 
Henry.* 

The investigators of this period began by measuring the distances 
between landmarks directly, that is, the lengths of the long bones from 
end to end, as had been previously done with the shorter distances of the 
head and face, but it was soon seen that if the subject were standing 
erect, with heels together, in military position, it was necessary only to 
ascertain the distance from the floor of each terminus, and obtain the 
various required lengths by subtraction of one height from another, 
thus sparing time to both subject and operator in the work of measuring, 
at best a tedious process. This was naturally possible only when arms 
and legs were held "straight," i.e., perpendicular to the floor, so that it is 
always necessary for the subject to stand as erect as he can. Aside from 

* WILDER and WENTWORTH: "Personal Identification." Badger, Boston, 1918. 



INTRODUCTION 3 

limb measurements, the same subtraction methods may be conveniently 
used in ascertaining the difference in level between any two landmarks, 
whether median or lateral; thus, between nipples and umbilicus, or be- 
tween the incisural notch in the front of the neck and the iliac crest. The 
distance thus ascertained is that between the two horizontal planes 
passing through the landmarks in question, and thus all measurements 
made in this way may be regarded as projections, or the point where hori- 
zontal planes passing through the points measured strike an imaginary 
line erected vertically, perpendicular to the floor. 

Thus by the opening of the New Century anthropometry had already 
become an important branch of anthropology, expressed in extensive and 
rapidly increasing literature. Individual investigators, however, differed 
widely, not only in the measurements employed, and in their relative 
value, but in the manner in which these measurements were taken and 
the instruments used, so that there could be little or no trustworthy 
comparison between the results of different investigators. The ciencse 
was thus ready for its next phase of development, the standardizing of 
the measurements. This was first attempted in the case of the skull, 
as craniometry had received the most attention and its measurements 
were thus the most in need of standardizing, and came as the result 
of the International Congress of Anthropologists meeting in Monaco 
during April, 1906. The proposal for this came from the Committee of 
the Congress, MM. Hamy, Papillault, and Verneau, and the work 
was done by a special committee appointed for the purpose, MM. Giuff- 
rida-Ruggeri, Hamy, Herv^, Lissauer, v. Luschan, Papillault, Pittard, 
Pozzi, Sergi, Verneau, Waldeyer. The proposals presented by the 
Committee (38 for the skull, and 19 for the living head and face) were 
ratified by the Congress, and have thus become the set of standard skull 
measurements, to be followed, so far as possible, by anthropometrists 
everywhere. 

A second standardization, that of measurements of the living body, 
excluding the head, resulted in much the same way, from proposals ade 
at the International Congress of 1912, which met at Geneva, Switzerland, 
in September of that year. 

The Committee consisted of 23 members, as follows: MM. Czek- 
anowski, Duckworth, Frasetto, Giuffrida-Ruggeri, Godin, Hillebrand, 
De Hoyos, Hrdlicka, Loth, v. Luschan, MacCurdy, Manouvrier, Marret, 
Mayet, Mochi, Musgrove, Pittard, Rivet, Schlaginhaufen, G. Sergi, 
Sollas, Volkov, Weissgerber. The increased interest in anthropometry 
is shown in the larger size of the Committee as compared with that of 
1906, and the spread of this interest to other countries is indicated by the 
inclusion in it of representatives from England, Russia, Switzerland, 
Spain, Hungary, and the United States (Hrdlicka and MacCurdy). 
There were 49 separate measurements proposed by the Committee, and 
these were, as in the previous case, unanimously voted by the Congress. 



4 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

The anthropometry of the bones of the skeleton, aside from the skull, 
has not as yet become subject to International Agreement, and is thus 
still in the stage of craniometry just previous to 1906, that is, detailed 
measurements have been worked out for the separate bones by different 
investigators, but the work needs yet to be standardized and those meas- 
urements selected which are generally considered essential. 

If we except the pioneer work of Turner, who published his work on 
the skeletons collected by the Challenger Expedition in 1886, the detailed 
osteometry of the separate bones has been the work of the Twentieth 
Century. The femur, naturally the first bone to receive special attention, 
was first adequately measured, according to modern methods, by Leh- 
mann-Nitsche in 1895, who included also some details of the tibia; but 
the first thorough osteometric treatment of ulna and radius was delayed 
until 1906, when it was presented by Fischer in a paper which may well 
serve as a model for similar work. The pelvic girdle, with details of the 
ossa coxae (ossa innominata), was well worked out in 1900 by Koganei 
and Osawa, but for the completion of the bones of this immediate 
region the world waited until Radlauer's work on the sacrum in 1908. 
The modern treatment of the vertebral column, a difficult problem for the 
osteometrist, was delayed until 1912, when it received competent treat- 
ment by Hasebe. The skeleton of hand and foot may be treated as a 
whole; or certain significant bones, especially those of carpus and tarsus 
may be considered by themselves. Thus, for the foot skeleton as a whole, 
there is the paper of Volkov in 1905, and that of M. and Mme. Adachi 
of the same year; while for separate foot bones those of Sewell (1904- 
1906) on the talus, of Manners-Smith on cuboid and naviculare (1907), 
and of Reicher on the calcaneus (1913) may serve as examples. 

It may thus be said that, at the outbreak of the European War, in 
1914, the field of osteometry had just been covered as far as the first 
blocking out of essential measurements for the separate bones, but that 
no attempt has been made to establish a general agreement or to insure 
universality in usage; still less has there been a sufficient number of 
studies based upon the bones of the separate human races to form the 
basis for much comparison. It is at this point that we may trust the 
work will be resumed at the expiration of the Great War. 

The employment of angular measurements, now an important part of 
anthropometry, especially in the case of the bones, has had a course of 
development closely similar to that of the linear measurements above 
reviewed. The first angle employed was the famous "Facial Angle" 
of Petras Camper, described in a posthumous work of this author, bearing 
the date of 1780. This angle was drawn upon the lateral aspect (profile) 
of skulls and living heads indifferently, and was that formed between a 
line passing through the base of the nose and the auditory meatus, and 
one roughly tangential to the profile. Camper found this angle to aver- 
age 70 in Negroes, 80 in Europeans, 90 in classical Greek statues de- 



INTRODUCTION 5 

lineating mortals, and 100 in certain of their representations of gods. 
On the other hand the apes, monkeys, and lower mammals gave angles 
less than 70, in a decreasing series, so that this facial angle was roughly a 
measure of the height of the forehead and hence indicative of the general 
intelligence. 

As with linear measurements, the Mid-Nineteenth Century, largely 
under the leadership of Paul Broca, brought into use other angles, for 
the most part those of the skull, while at the present times important 
angular measurements have been established for many other bones. 
Aside from single angles some anthropometrists make use of tri- 
angles, quadrilaterals, and even higher polygons, mainly in connection 
with mathematically drawn projections of bones upon a plane surface. 
With the living body, in spite of the fact that the first angle used, 
that of Camper, found here its main application, there are now few, if 
any, angles in common anthropometric use, although certain ones 
mainly those associated with the arm, leg, or foot, have a pathological 
or orthopedic significance. 

No International Congress has as yet attempted to establish or define 
any prescribed angles for either the bones or the living body, and the 
matter rests at present, as was the case with linear measurements previous 
to 1906, with the individual investigators; certain obvious angles are 
commonly employed, and with considerable uniformity in definition, 
while others are devised by individual authors and used in bringing out 
relationships the value of which has not as yet been thoroughly tested. 
A distinct advantage of an angle over a linear measurement lies in the 
fact that angles may be compared directly in individuals of different 
size, and need no index; possible disadvantages are found in the uncer- 
tainty of fixing the lines which describe them, and in the difficulty of 
reading them accurately. 

Concerning the actual value of anthropometric measurements, of 
whatever sort, and the extent to which measurement may be profitably 
carried, both opinion and practice differ widely. As in other forms of 
biometrics, where mathematics plays an important part in the investiga- 
tion of a primarily biological problem, certain investigators are bound to 
be more interested in the mathematical than in the biological side, and 
there is always danger that, in their hands, the latter cause may suffer, 
and the work be viewed as a mathematical problem, in which the goal 
is reached when the new relations involved are expressed in the form of 
formulae and tables. Others, on the other hand, view Physical Anthro- 
pology as wholly morphological, and place their reliance upon forms and 
form-comparisons as revealed to the eye, being very wary about express- 
ing any character in a mathematical form. 

As an example of the mathematical extreme, of an anthropometrist 
in whose hands the whole subject becomes an endless series of measure- 
ments, we may take the Hungarian investigator, Dr. Aurel von Torok, 



6 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

who, in his extensive text-book of Craniometry (Grundziige einer syste- 
matischen Kraniometrie, Stuttgart, 1890) enumerates for the skull alone 
no fewer than 5371 linear measurements and projections, together with 
a proportionate number of indices, and many hundreds of angles, tri- 
angles, polygons, etc. To him the goal of the anthropometrist appears 
to be in part to make so complete a mathematical mensuration of a 
given skull that it could be faithfully reproduced if destroyed, but in 
great part also to seek every possible way in which such an object may 
be measured. Is it any wonder that to him the complete and satisfactory 
measurement of a single skull is a sufficient subject for a Doctor's 
thesis ? 

Quite the opposite view is that of the veteran Roman anthropologist, 
Giuseppe Sergi, who urges the study of varying shapes by the method 
usually employed by the zoologist and anatomist, that is, mainly by the 
eye. In commenting, for instance, upon the sorting out of European 
head types by the length-breadth indices of the cranium, a very obvious 
and elementary sort of anthropometry, he asks how many species of lark 
we should get if the ornithologist should attempt to separate them by 
the ingenious method of measuring the total length from tip of beak 
to tail and divide this by the wing-spread. He counsels the application 
of what he calls the "zoological" rather than the anthropometric method 
to the study of racial skulls, and thinks that one should learn to dis- 
tinguish them by characters that one can perceive without measurement. 
"As a zoologist can recognize the character of an animal species or 
variety belonging to any region of the globe or any period of time, so also 
should an anthropologist if he follows the same method of investigating 
the morphological characters of the skull."* 

It seems plain that somewhere in the wide range between these two 
extremes there is the legitimate place for a rational anthropometry, an 
anthropometry that employs mathematical methods in the definite 
expression of morphological relationships, and devises various methods of 
measurement to bring out differences already perceptible to the eye 
of the trained observer. As the most prominent exponent of this form of 
the science, whose goal is ever the detailed observation and comparison 
of the various representatives of man and man's allies at present and in 
the past, and who employs the technique of anthropometry most suc- 
cessfully in the pursuit of this goal, we have the great anthropologist of 
the University of Strassburg, the late Gustav Schwalbe,and the beginning 
anthropometrist can do no better than study any of the classical papers 
produced by this man during the last twenty years of his life (1896-1916) 
in order to gain a clear idea of the great service of measurements as a 
handmaid to morphology. In the field of comparative human evolu- 
tion, in the comparison of modern human types with the various pre- 
historic forms, he has used the data gained from indices and angles to 

* SERGI, G.: The Mediterranean race, Scribner's, 1901, p. 36. 



INTRODUCTION 7 

the best advantage, and during this investigation, endeavoring con- 
stantly to bring out real morphological differences, has established 
certain measurements which now rank among the most important and 
universally employed of anthropometric data. 

Aside from Schwalbe, who was very conservative in his use of measure- 
ments, there is a large school of anthropologists of moderate ideas, who 
seek to describe the bones of representatives of the various races, and 
their bodies as well, by making a reasonable number of measurements, 
and at present in the special measurements selected there is in general a 
close agreement. Actual conditions may be represented by a comparison 
of the work of several of the leading investigators in regard to craniometry, 
or the application of measurements to the description of the skull. In 
1906 Frederic, an associate of Schwalbe, described certain individual 
skulls by the help of 53 separate data, of which 26 are linear measure- 
ments; 17, indices; 5, angles; and 3, girths. Adachi, in 1904, in a paper 
specially devoted to the examination of the orbital region of Japanese 
skulls, employs 56 separate data, of which the greater number refer to 
the orbit proper. E. Fischer (University of Freiburg, 1913) presents 
in his laboratory outlines, for skull mensuration, which he furnishes to 
his students, a list of 77 separate data, 43 of which are linear measure- 
ments, 3 are angles, 8 are girths, and 22 are indices; and Schlaginhaufen 
(University of Zurich, 1913) uses for the same purpose 82, for the most 
part identical with the former. Even v. Torok, with his extreme views 
regarding possible craniometrical measures, is yet willing to print a list 
of what he calls the "most important" data, which he considers sufficient 
for purposes of general description, and which include only 26 linear 
measures, 8 indices, 3 girths, and a few other data, 39 in all. Duckworth 
(University of Cambridge, England, 1910) employs in a descriptive 
paper on Sardinian crania no more than 11 measurements and 5 indices, 
although he recommends in practical laboratory work (1904) 15 linear 
measurements, 7 indices, 3 angles, and the cranial capacity. Finally 
the Prescription of 1906, which obtained the unanimous approval of 
the International Anthropological Congress, comprises 38 separate data ; 
viz., 32 linear measurements, 3 arcs, 1 angle, and the cranial capacity. 

A real danger that besets the anthropometrist along the mathematical 
side, and one to which a student may be naturally brought by seeking 
to be accurate, is the temptation to treat with too great respect the actual 
figures obtained from the individual measurements, to regard the decimal 
places as of equal importance in all cases, and to feel that a series of 
measurements carried out to the third place, for instance, is much more 
accurate and reliable than one carried out only a single place beyond 
the point. 

As a matter of fact, the accuracy of a result depends essentially upon 
the method of making the measurement, and here not only must the 
personal equation, as involved in the operator, be taken into considera- 
tion, but also the condition of the material measured, for where the 



8 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

decimal places used go beyond the error of two consecutive measure- 
ments, there is absolutely no value in carrying them out. If, as an 
illustration, we find that in a certain skull measurement, the results ob- 
tained by different operators, or by the same operator at different times, 
do not agree with each other to within 0.5 mm., it is simply time lost to 
attempt to carry out the individual measurements beyond one decimal 
place. Especially in the case of measurements of the living, where the 
operator has to consider, not only his own degree of accuracy, but also 
the slight involuntary changes of position of the subject, there are certain 
of the longer measurements where one cannot hope to be accurate within 
a whole centimeter, and where attention to differences of 2-3 millimeters 
would be of no possible avail. 

ANTHROPOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS 

The instruments employed in anthropometry may be grouped accord- 
ing to form and use, as follows : 

I. Instruments for measurement 
1.. Linear measurement 
calipers 

craniometer 
pelvimeter 
slide compass 
anthropometer 
rod compass 
osteometric board 

2. Girths and arcs 

tape-measures 

3. Angles 

goniometer (stationary) 
goniometer (for attachment) 
special types of goniometer 

4. Torsion (shaft of long bones) 

parallelograph 

5. Volumetric instruments 

6. Scales for recording weight 

II. Instruments for holding and orienting skulls and other bones 
simple types of craniophore 
cubic craniophore of Martin 
osteophores 

combined craniophore and osteophore of Wetzel 
III. Instruments for drawing and delineating 
dioptograph of Lucae 
perigraph of Lissauer 
diagraph of Martin 
stereograph of Broca 

I. Instruments for Measurement 

The two most convenient types of instrument for measuring linear 
distances as defined by two points forming their termini are : 




INTRODUCTION 9 

1. Calipers (Fr. compas d'epaisseur; Ger. Tasterzirkel) 

2. Slide compass (Fr. compas glissiere; Ger. Gleitzirkel) 

These two types (Fig. 1) differ most widely in the shape of their legs, 
which in the first are long and curved outwards, to admit of passing 
around an awkwardly shaped object, and in the second are short and 
generally straight. Both consist essentially of a metric scale, to one 
end of which one leg is immovably fixed, while the second leg slides 
back and forth along the scale, but in the caliper form the legs spread 
apart from each other upon a pivot placed at a distance from the scale, 
while in the slide compass the two legs are constantly parallel to each 
other. 




FIG. 1. Two common instruments. (Made by Hermann, Z-drich.) 
(The one on the left) Calipers [Fr. compas d'epaisseur; Ger. Tasterzirkel.] 
(The one on the right) Slide compass [Fr. compas glissiere; Ger. Gleitzirkel.] 

Calipers. There are two forms of calipers with reference to the shape 
of the measuring scale; (a) the Bertillon form (Fig. 2), with the scale made 
on a curve, and sliding in an immovable slot upon the movable leg, and 
(6) the form in which the scale is straight and runs in a separate piece, 
attached to the movable leg by a pivot (Fig. 1, left hand). Both types 
are furnished with a binding-screw, which, by fastening the movable 
leg to the scale may fix a given measurement as long as needed. 

It has been found convenient also to make calipers in two sizes, 
with varying capacity: 

1. A smaller size, designed mainly for the measurement of heads and 
skulls, and hence called a Craniometer. Its scale measures 250 mm. 

2. A larger size, designed primarily for taking of thoracic and pelvic 



10 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



measurements in the living. It is called a Pelvimeter, and has a scale of 
600 mm. 




FIG. 2. Bertillon's type of calipers. (After Bertiilon.) 

Slide Compass. In the slide compass the scale rod is always straight, 
and forms the handle, upon which the movable leg slides, to record its 

distance from the fixed leg (Fig. 1, 
right hand). In the now more 
usual anthropometric form the legs 
project to an equal distance upon 
each side of the scale and end upon 
one side in sharp points, for use in 
the measurement of bones, and 
upon the other in rounded points, 
flattened horizontally, for taking 
the measurements of the living. 
Bertiilon used two forms, a smaller 
and a larger, both differing in cer- 
(After tain p O i n ts from the one described 
and figured here. The smaller size 
possesses flanges along the sides of the legs, and the movable leg is shorter 




FIG. 



3. Flower's type of calipers. 
Duckworth.) 



INTRODUCTION 11 

than the other; in the larger type the legs project almost wholly upon 
one side. 

These types, like the Bertillon form of craniometer, were originally 
designed to take only certain specific measurements, of use in the identi- 
fication of criminals, and are still in general use for this purpose. They 
answer fairly well for general anthropometric purposes, but are not fitted 
for as general use as the other types. As another special form of slide 
compass may be mentioned Flower's craniometer, used by the English 
for purposes similar to those for which the smaller calipers are employed; 
it has the curved legs of calipers, but in design and plan is a slide com- 
pass (Fig. 3). 

Anthropometer. The anthropometer (Fig. 4), the most generally 
useful of all anthropometric instruments, is especially designed for use 




FIG. 4. Anthropometer of Martin, in the folding linen case, ready to be taken into 
the field. (Made by Hermann; Zurich.) 

in the field, and is thus capable of being readily unshipped and packed 
in a small folding canvass case. It consists essentially of a long rod of 
rigid steel, made of four separate lengths of 55 cm. each, which, when put 
together into one piece, has a length of two meters. Upon one side this 
rod is graduated in an ascending scale, from the free end, which is intended 
to rest upon the ground, up to the top, to which is attached an immovable 
socket (seen upon the top of the rod in Fig. 5). A similar socket, also 
intended to bear a cross-rod, slides freely up and down the rod, and regis- 
ters the height from the ground of any point upon which the end of the 
cross-rod rests (in Fig. 5 the operator is recording the height of the head 
of the radius in the standing subject). 

Upon the opposite side of the long upright rod, its two upper lengths 
bear a graduated ruling in a descending direction, with the zero point at 



12 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

the upper, immovable socket. Using these two upper lengths of the 
rod by themselves, and reversing the cross-rod in the movable socket, we 
have a large slide-compass. 

The entire instrument is thus a double one; in one form of adjustment 
it is an anthropometer, used for determining the exact height above the 
ground of any given point upon a standing or sitting figure (living) , and 




FIG. 5. Anthropometer, being used for ascertaining heights from floor. 

by means of a few slight changes it becomes converted into a rod-compass, 
(Stangenzirkel) or large form of slide compass, with 'the legs composed of 
two long rods, which may be adjusted to varying lengths, and used for 
nearly all of the purposes for which the more specialized forms of cranio- 
meter, pelvimeter, and small slide compass are commonly employed. 
Rod Compass. In adjusting the instrument to these two uses there 
is necessary a difference in the insertion of the cross rods, as well as in 



INTRODUCTION 



13 



the scale used and the method of reading their values; and while the 
proper methods for each use, with the various compensations to make the 
actual distance between the points of the two rods, or the exact height of 
the single rod, correspond to that indicated on the scale, a brief review 
of the rules to observe may not come amiss. 

(a) To set up the instrument as an anthropometer. Use all four lengths, 
so adjusted as to make a continuous scale of two full meters, divided into 
centimeteis and millimeters. A single cross rod is necessary, and this is 
to be put into the movable socket, with the point prolonging the lower 
edge of the rod. The proper reading is indicated by a thin edge of metal, 
borne near the upper end of the socket on the side of the ascending scale. 

(6) To set up the instrument as a rod compass.- Use the two upper 
lengths only of the main rod, but employ both cross rods. The upper 
one of these latter, borne by the fixed socket, should be placed with its 
point prolonging its lower edge; the lower one, borne by the movable 
socket, should have the point prolonging its upper edge; that is, the two 
cross rods, when placed together, should have the two points in contact. 
Thedescending scale should be used, and the reading is indicated by the 
flat upper surface of the movable socket. Note that the proper com- 
pensations are made at the beginning of the scale, where three millimeters 
are taken off. 

Osteometric Board. The osteometric board is used in taking the 
length of the long bones of the skeleton, and consists of a flat board, 




FIG. 6. Osteometric board of Broca. 

with an inlaid metric scale, and with a cross piece immovably attached at 
one end. A second cross piece, held always parallel to the latter, slides 
back and forth along the main board, and the bone to be measured is 
shut in between the two. The length is then read off on the scale. 

Tape-measure. For all measurements of girth, and also for certain 
arcs which present themselves on the surface of the head or skull, the 
wellknown tape-measure, graded to millimeters, is universally employed. 
The only question in the matter lies between the steel or the cloth form, 
and each possesses certain advantages. The steel remains unyielding, 
and is as good for use after years of employment as at first, while even 
the best weave of cloth stretches, often after a comparatively brief em- 



14 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

ployment. On the other hand steel tape is necessarily rigid, and does not 
apply itself to a slightly wavy, or otherwise irregular, surface as does the 
cloth, and by spanning the hollows may give an incorrect reading, pro- 
vided the perimeter of the actual surface is desired. On the whole it is 
to be recommended to employ cloth tapes, which are to be frequently 
renewed. It is also advisable to test all tapes in use at very frequent 
intervals, by applying them to some rigid measure, as the rod of the 
anthropometer. 

Goniometer. Frequently, when an investigator has found a certain 
angle, as shown generally in the skull or other bone, or perhaps in the 
living profile, he devises a special instrument (goniometer), designed to 




FIG. 7. Attachable goniometer of Mollison. (After Mollison.') 

record the measure of this special angle, and this practice has thus re- 
sulted in putting before the anthropologist a large number of such special 
instruments. 

Goniometer of the "Clamp-on Type." A generalized type of gonio- 
meter is found in the Ansteckgoniometer, or "Clamp-on Goniometer," of 
Mollison. This is made for attachment to other instrume ts and is thus 
capable of measuring almost any angle where the part under observation 
is immovable, as with a skull in a craniophore, since the instrument 
depends upon gravitation. It consists essentially (Fig. 7) of a protractor, 
to which is attached a swinging needle, with a heavy base. The frame of 
the protractor possesses a slot, controlled by a spring and binding screws, 
allowing an easy attachment to any one of several parts of the slide com- 
pass, or to other instruments, so that the angle formed by the line joining 
the end of the legs of the compass with the perpendicular, as defined by 



INTRODUCTION 



15 



the swinging needle, which forms a plummet, may be readily ascertained. 
Thus, in a skull placed in the Frankfort horizontal the means are here 
at hand of determining the angle made by any surface, or by the line 
joining any two points, with either this horizontal or with a plane at right 
angles io it, such as the median sagittal, or any frontal plane. 

The accompanying figures (Figs. 8 and 9) will give suggestions as to 
possible uses of this valuable little instrument, and no doubt others may 
be devised by the reader. In all cases it will be noted that the angle 




FIG. 8. Attachable goniometer of Mollison used with the upper cross arm of the slide 

compass. (After Mollison.) 

indicated is that formed by the line connecting the two ends of the legs 
of the compass with the vertical. 

Stationary Goniometer. A rather more special goniometer, especially 
designed for getting any of the angles involved in the profile of a skull, 
is the stationary goniometer (Fig. 10). This also is intended for use with 
a skull placed in the FH,* and must itself be accurately leveled, and used 
upon a horizontal table. For this purpose it is provided with leveling 
screws and spirit levels in two planes. It is essentially a slide compass, 

* Frankfort Horizontal; this customary abbreviation for a constantly recurring 
phrase will be employed throughout this book, cf. below, p. 38. 



16 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

and is thus provided with two sliding cross rods, graduated in milli- 
meters; the upper rod is fixed, the lower movable. As the entire appara- 
tus may be raised or lowered in its standard, the fixed upper rod can be 
readily placed at the upper limit of the line to be tested, while by moving 
the lower one up or down, and by pushing it in or out, its point may be 
adjusted to the lower terminus. This line is thus recorded upon the 
goniometer by the two points of the cross rods, and may be read off upon 
a protractor, by so placing the long needle that its lower thin edge 
exactly crosses on the lower rod the degree indicated upon the upper one 
by the little mark in the center. 




FIQ. 9. Attachable goniometer of Mollison used upon the scale rod. (After Mollison.) 



Aside from this the upright standard of the instrument, which may be 
raised and lowered in a slot, is also graduated to millimeters and can 
thus record differences in level. With the graduating of the cross rods 
also, there are numerous other uses to which this instrument may be put 
aside from the measurement of profile angles. Yet, these other uses are 
generally as well performed, and more conveniently, by such simpler 
instruments as the clamp-on form of the goniometer, and thus the 
more complicated form is probably destined to be gradually superseded. 

Parallelograph. The torsion, or twist, in the shaft of a long bone, as 
shown by a superposition of the axes of certain features at its two ends, 
is a very special, yet often an extremely important, character. This is 



INTRODUCTION 



17 



measured by the parallelograph, an instrument designed to record the 
projection of any given transverse axes established at the two ends, and 
projected upon a plane at right angles with the main axis of the bone 
(Fig. 11). If, for example, in the case of the femur, the axis of the head 
and neck be indicated by a knitting needle (Ai), fastened to the bone by 
wax or plastilina, and if at the other end the axis of the condyles be 
similarly shown by a needle placed tangent to the condyles upon their 
ventral surfaces (A 2 ), the torsion of this bone would be indicated by the 




FIG. 10. Stationary goniometer of Martin. (Manufactured by Hermann; Zurich.) 

angle made by these two needles, when the bone is viewed "end on;" in 
other words, when these two axes are projected upon a plane perpendicular 
to the shaft. (For an illustration of this, cf. Fig. 32). 

To actually draw and measure such an angle, a bone is taken, and the 
cross axes to be compared are indicated by the needles, after which the 
bone is placed in an osteophore, which holds it rigidly in a vertical 
position. A retort stand, equipped with a heavy iron clamp, capable of 
movement in several directions, serves as the osteophore. This appa- 
ratus, including the vertically placed bone with the two needles, is to 
be placed upon a large sheet of paper, so fastened as to prevent slipping. 



18 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



The parallelograph, the function of which is to accurately delineate 
the position of the two needles, projected upon the paper, is essentially 
a diagraph, like the one described below, having two arms ending in 
points that can be placed, the one exactly above the other, so that, 
when the upper one touches a certain point the lower one pricks the 
paper exactly beneath it. When, now, two points upon each needle are 
thus recorded upon the sheet of paper, the position of each is fixed, and 




FIG. 11. Parallelograph of Martin. (Manufactured by Hermann; Zurich.) 

their projections are drawn by simply connecting the points of each 
line by means of a ruler. The angle is then measured by a protractor. 

The parallelograph consists essentially of a vertical rod, rising from 
the center of an iron tripod, paralleled by a rod of smaller caliber, arising 
from one leg of the tripod base, and fixed immovably to the first at about 
3 cm. distant. The larger rod bears two freely movable sockets, con- 
trolled by binding screws each bearing a horizontal steel needle, each 
of which may be pushed back and forth through its socket, also controlled 
by screws. As the needles are graduated the two can be pushed out to 



INTRODUCTION 19 

exactly the same length. When this is done the two are brought per- 
fectly parallel by swinging them against the smaller of the two parallel 
uprights. The points of the two needles are now in the proper position 
the one exactly above the other, but are directed differently, for while 
the point of the upper needle is directed outwards, as the prolongation 
of the needle itself, that of the lower is carried upon a secondary piece at 
right angles to the main needle, and is thus directed downwards, so that 
it may prick the paper placed beneath the apparatus. 

To project a given line (here a knitting needle fastened to the bone 
to be measured with respect to torsion) the point of the upper needle is 
placed in contact successively with two points on the needle defining the 
axis to be projected, while the lower needle records the points by making 
slight punctures in the paper beneath. If any two approximately 
transverse axes are both projected so that they cross, an angle is formed 
that can be easily read. 

In using the parallelograph care must be taken that both transverse 
needles of the instrument are in contact with the smaller upright, and 
that they are pushed out equally; as otherwise the points would not lie 
in the same line vertically. This may be made certain by bringing the 
upper arm so far down towards the other, that the point of its needle 
coincides with the median axis of the vertical part of the lower needle. 
The shape of the upper end of this facilitates this comparison. 

Volumes. The principal volumes used by the anthropometrist are 
those of the cranial cavity and the orbit of the eye, the first one of the very 
earliest, the other one of the latest of anthropometric data to be developed. 
For the first, the technique for which is to be found elsewhere, the essential 
apparatus consists of some medium with which to fill the cavity, such as 
shot, sand, mustard seed, etc., a graduated cylinder in which to measure 
the medium, and usually some simple mechanical means to insure a 
uniformity in pressure during the filling and emptying. 

A control skull, either an actual skull, or a receptacle of similar shape, 
of known capacity, is frequently used at short intervals during the 
work, to see that the measurements are made with a fair amount of 
uniformity. 

Weight. The weight of an object is seldom used in anthropometry 
except in the case of the entire body. The weight of certain organs in a 
perfectly fresh condition, as provided during an autopsy, has also been 
found of some value, especially in the case of the brain; but the weight 
of bones depends so much upon their condition, especially with regard to 
water content, that, except where the condition is absolutely the same, as 
in comparisons of the weight of the different bones of the same skeleton, 
such are of no especial value. For all such work any form of reliable 
scales provided with the metric weights is satisfactory, for accurate bodily 
weight special forms of scales are obtainable, as are used in gymnasiums, 
hospitals and clinics. To have any anthropometric value the weight of 



20 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

the unclothed body should be taken. (See below, p. 162.) The weight 
of a detached part of a living body, like a leg or a hand, may be deter- 
mined with considerable accuracy by displacement. A vessel is prepaied, 
suitable in size and shape for the reception of the part to be weighed; it 
is filled with water, and the part in question thrust in. The volume of 
the water displaced, expressed in cubic centimeters, is multiplied by the 
average specific gravity of the part to be weighed, as learned from 
cadavers. The result is give in grams. 

II. Instruments for Holding and Orienting 
Skulls and other Bones 

A simple and perfectly satisfactory type of osteophore, especially 
suited to the long bones, has been already described in connection with 
the parallelograph above; namely, a retort stand, with an iron clamp. 
This would hardly be satisfactory for skulls, and here, owing in part to 
their peculiar shape, and more because of the need for an exact orienta- 
tion, some special type is necessary for most purposes. 

Craniophores. Such a craniophore should have a pair of jaws, 
designed to be attached at the occipital foramen, the one outside and 
the other within; also a set of joints to allow the jaws, bearing the 
skull, to be moved in two directions at right angles with each 
other, for purposes of orientation. It is also convenient to be able 
to raise and lower the entire craniophore, or that part of it bearing 
the skull. 

A simple form is shown in Fig. 10, in connection with the goniometer 
where the jaws are borne at the top of an upright piece, set into a heavy 
iron tripod, furnished with leveling screws. The jaws are provided with 
two joints, not well shown in the picture, which allow motion of the skull 
either forward and back or from side to side, and are borne, not upon the 
main upright, but upon an inner metallic tube, which slides in and out of 
the other, and allows the skull to be raised and lowered without altering 
its orientation. 

Cubic Craniophore. For certain work, especially for drawing with 
the diagraph, as described below, a great advantage comes from shut- 
ting the skull, properly orientated, and held in the jaws, within a skeleton 
cube, so that it presents the six normae and thus may be drawn or 
photographed in any of them . 

For this purpose the cubic craniophore has been devised (Fig. 12). 
It has been variously improved and varied for remedying certain defects, 
but in its main forms it appears as at A, where the jaws, with their 
orienting joints, have been taken bodily from the vertical form just 
described, and set into a socket in the middle of the floor (in the figure 
the entire apparatus has been reversed for use with the diagraph, which 
is also shown) ; or as at B, where the jaws and joints are held by a rigid 



INTRODUCTION 



21 



arm, that comes out from one edge, and thus gets rid of the substruc- 
ture which in the other form bears the socket.* 




B 




FIG. 12. Cubic craniophore of Martin, used with his diagraph. The upper figure 
gives Martin's original model, in which to insure sufficient rigidity to the whole it is neces- 
sary to supply the bottom square (here the top) with a set of cross diagonals. In order 
to free the entire surface of drawing paper on which the craniophore stands, the whole 
apparatus is inverted, and the skull hangs from the middle of the upper plane. In the 
lower figure, equipped with the improvement of Scnlaginhaufen, this inversion is not neces- 
sary, as the skull is borne upon a rigid steel arm which projects from one edge like an 
immovable bracket lamp, and quite frees the craniophore from all incumbrances like 
diagonals. The leveling platform used in connection with both craniophore and diagraph 
is a great convenience wherever a permanently level table top is not available. (After 
Schlaginhqufen.) 

Horizontal Needle. A convenient accessory instrument, the hori- 
zontal needle, consists of a small steel upright on a tripod, which bears, in a 
socket which may be raised and lowered, a cross needle which may be 
pushed in and out, precisely like the upper one of the two arms of the 

* For the " Kubuskraniophor " here figured and described, cf. MARTIN, R. : 
Ueber einige neuere Instrumente und Hilfsmittel fur den anthropologischen Unter- 
richt, Correspondenzblatt der deutschen Gesellsch. fiir Anthropol. No. 11, 1903. 
(Versammlung in Worms.) SCHLAGINHAUFEN, O.: Beschreibung und Handhabung 
von Rudolf Martin's diagraphen-technischen Apparaten, ibid., No. 15, 1907. 



22 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

parallelograph. When a skull is clamped into a craniophore, particularly 
one like that first described, and figured in Fig. 12, this needle may be 
used in placing the skull at the FH, the adjusting being continued until 
the needle, at a given level, by being pushed about the table on different 
sides, will successively point to the four essential points involved in this 
horizontal, the lowest point in the rim of each orbit, and the highest point 
in the rim of each auditory meatus. When a satisfactory orientation has 
been made in such a craniophore, the essential part, together with the 
skull, may be easily transferred to the cubic frame, without further adjust- 
ment. Except, however, for the upright parts of the cubic frame, the 
first orientation may be done just as well within the cubic craniophore, by 
the help of the horizontal needle. 

Table. It will be seen from this procedure, and still more from the 
description of the diagraph, to follow, that the table, although hardly an 
anthropometric instrument in itself, must be suited to the work. For 
these and other proceedings its top should be level and very smooth, and 
it would be as well to have it accurately leveled for such instruments as 
the stationary goniometer. Polished slate or plate glass is recommended 
for the surface, to which paper may be temporarily attached by means 
of wax or plastilina. For purposes where an instrument is required 
to be held stationary, as in the case of the cubic craniophore, during 
the drawing of diagraph curves, the same material may serve, placed 
along the base. 

For purposes where a skull is simply to be held without orientation 
some very simple device is sufficient. For exhibition in a museum 
a standard with an upright bearing a spring or some arrangement of 
twisted wire is sufficient, and for many anthropometric purposes, such 
as drawing or photographing, a similar device is often satisfactory. A 
thin cloth cushion, nine inches square, partially filled with bran, serves 
a most useful purpose in all ordinary examinations of a skull, and in 
the measurements of arcs and linear distances. Upon such a cushion, 
if not very well filled, a skull may be placed in practically any desired 
position, leaving the two hands free for drawing; the cushion saves also 
the wear and tear to which a skull is subject, rolled about upon a table. 

Universal Holder of Wetzel. A device in which any sort of bone, in 
almost any degree of fragmentation, may be held with well-nigh mathe- 
matical exactness, convenient for the application of any form of drawing 
apparatus, is the Universal holder of Wetzel, Fig. 13. This apparatus, 
described in detail in Zeitschr. Morphol. und Anthropol., 1910-11, pp. 
541-598, consists of a round stone table, upon which may be erected 
either one or two massive steel stands, which clamp firmly to the table 
edge. Various forms of clutch, fitted to various cases, are borne by the 
stand or stands, the firmest and best arrangement being one in which two 
stands are used, clamped at opposite sides of the table, and bear between 
them a horizontal steel bar. Whether supported by one or two stands 



INTRODUCTION 



23 



this horizontal bar, suspended above the table, furnishes the attach- 
ment for the various clutch devices, which thus hold skull, skull-frag- 
ment or long bone, whatever its shape or size, directly above the table. 
In Fig. 13 the single stand is used, and the very irregular piece is held in 
the position desired. 




FIG. 13. The osteophore of Wetzel. This is essentially a horizontal rod of heavy steel, 
upon which a variety of appliances may be attached to hold bones. This rod may be at- 
tached upon one side only, as in the figure, or upon both sides, as desired, or in accordance 
with the problem in hand. (After Wetzel.) 



III. Instruments for Drawing and Delineating 

Aside from the universally used photograph there are several forms 
of drawing instruments in common use for reproducting accurate lines 
of skulls and other bones. 

Dioptograph of Lucae. The diaptograph is essentially a panto- 
graph, augmented by a telescope with a field crossed by spider lines 
which has for its purpose the selection of the exact lines to be drawn. 
The observer stands over the tube, and places the point of crossing of the 
lines in the tube over the lines he wishes to draw, sliding the tube gently 
with its felt-covered foot over a glass surface. Whatever lines are thus 
traced by the tube are reproduced by the pantograph at a distance, and 
by making use of the pantograph principle, and adjusting the frame, the 
reproduction may be made either larger, smaller, or of the same size as 
the object itself. 

Perigraph of Lissauer. In the Lissauer model, called by its deviser 
a perigraph, the stand consists of an upright upon a flat horizontal base, 



24 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

to which it is attached exactly at right angles (Fig. 15). The upright 
bears a long, curved needle, which can be raised and lowered, and which 
is sufficiently curved to be out of the way of any projecting portion of 
the skull or bone which is being traced. The point of this needle (d), 
placed upon the desired level of a skull firmly held in a craniometer, 
traces around the perimeter, while a pencil (g~) traces exactly the same 




FIG. 14. The dioptograph of Lucae in use. The operator is here following the contour 
lines of a skull as seen from the norma verticalis by means of the small telescope, and at the 
same time, by means of the attached pantograph, is sketching the same upon the sheet 
of drawing paper upon her left, mounted upon the drawing-board. As with other panto- 
graphs a skull may be thus drawn at a reduction or an enlargement, or can be drawn at 
exactly the natural size, as here. 

curve upon a sheet of paper placed upon the table. In the figure, which 
is a little blind, the curved line proceeding from the pencil point is simply 
the curve which is being drawn, and not a second needle, as it seems. 

Diagraph cf Martin. The form employed by Martin, called a dia- 
graph, is figured in connection with his cubic craniophore in Fig. 12. The 
curved needle is similar to the one used in the previous instrument, but 



INTRODUCTION 



25 



the frame is simpler, and consists of a felt-covered metallic foot, of oval 
form, which bears as the upright, a graduated steel rod. The curved 




FIG. 15. The perigraph of Lissauer, really a diagraph, differing but a little from that of 

Martin. (After Wetzel.) 

needle may be rotated so that the curve lies at any plane without chang- 
ing the exact position of the needle point above the pencil. 




FIG. 16. Broca's stereograph. (After Topinard.) 

Stereograph of Broca. In the stereograph of Broca (Fig. 16) , we meet 
with another principle, that of a swinging stand that carries the needle 



26 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

and pencil as well, while the paper is held vertically, like an artist's 
canvas. 

SIMPLE BIOMETRIC METHODS 

I. Indices 

The Index of a given measurement is its percentage when compared 
with some other measurement taken as a standard, or the equivalent of 
100. It is thus a relative, and not an absolute, term, and may be com- 
pared directly with the corresponding index in another individual of 
different size. 

For example, imagine three heads as seen from directly above; in 
one, which is long and narrow, the breadth is exactly one-half the length; 
in another the breadth is three-fourths the length; and in the third, which 
is absolutely circular in this outline the breadth and the length are equal. 
Now, if the total length were exactly the same in all, for instance, 160 mm., 
the three breadths would be respectively 80, 120, and 160, and they 
could be directly compared; if, however, they were not alike, we could 
say that in the first the breadth was 50% of the length; the second, 75%, 
and the third 100%, and these proportions could be compared directly, 
although the actual measurements in millimeters could not. 

These are the indices, i.e., the proportions of the breadths to the 
lengths. Whatever the actual lengths, they are considered to equal 100 
in all cases, and the breadths are expressed as so many parts of that 100. 
The question is, if the length equals 100, what does the breadth equal?; 
or length : breadth :: 100 : x. This is solved by converting this expres- 
sion into the following: 

breadth X 100 

length 

which will give the value of the breadth, in terms of the length, or, in 
other words, the index. 

Illustration. The total length of a given skull is 190 mm., and its 
breadth is 141 mm. We now divide the number, the percentage of 
which is to be found by the one which is to stand for 100, first adding 
two ciphers to the dividend, thus: 

190)14100(74.21 index 
1330 
800 
760 



400 
380 

200 

190 

The breadth, 141, is thus about 74% of the length, and this index is to 
be compared directly with the like index of any other skull, whatever its 
size. 

Skulls of as large an index as 100 or as small a one as 50, mentioned in 



INTRODUCTION 27 

the explanation, do not exist normally, an index of 65 or one of 96 being 
extreme. Some 50% of all skulls have indices that fall between 75 and 
80, and consequently these are called mesocranial ("mesocephalic"). 
Skulls below 75 are dolichocranial, and those above 80 are brachycranial. 
The one of this illustration is dolichocranial. 

While it is usually more convenient, in using an index, to have the two 
distances taken at right angles to each other as here, it is by no means 
necessary, and an index may as well be used which takes two distances 

parallel to each other (as two across the face, - No. 18 

zy - zy 

under Skull, below) ; or even one that uses the whole and a part of the 

length of humerus X 100 

same line: Ex. - ^n re e Although the distance to be 

total length of arm 

reduced to a percentage is generally smaller than the one which represents 
the 100, this also is not necessary, and there are indices where the reverse 
is true, and where the value of the index is consequently more than 
100. 

II. Frequency Curves 

When, after taking a large series of the same measurement in many 
individuals, we wish to compare its distribution, that is, the frequency of 
occurrence of each measurement, it is usual to construct a frequency 
curve, which will show the whole result at one stroke. This is done by 
the employment of paper with two sets of parallel rulings, at right angles 
to each other, the so-called "cross- section paper." Spaced horizontally 
from left to right along the bottom (or top) are placed the successive 
measurements, while along an upright on the left is placed a series of 
numbers, usually from 1 on, to indicate the number of individuals which 
are included under each measurement. The result of plotting the entire 
record out is a series of vertical columns of varying height, and the fre 
quency curve is formed by connecting the tops of the columns. 

Example: Suppose that, as the result of measuring 36 different 
objects, we find the result, giving each in millimeters, to be, 
3, 5, 5, 5, 6, 4, 8, 4, 4, 6, 4, 6, 7, 3, 7, 6, 8, 10, 
3, 4, 3, 5, 6, 5, 4, 4, 9, 5, 7, 9, 1, 6, 2, 5, 2, 5, 

As they are found to vary from 1 to 10, we may then erect as many verti- 
cal columns, each of as many squares as there are instances of that par- 
ticular figure, as follows : 



2 
2 


3 
3 
3 
3 


4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 


5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 


6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 


7 
7 8 
7 8 


9 
9 



10 



28 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

The top ends of the columns mark the position of the Frequency 
Curve which may be easily drawn. 

As used in anthropometry frequency curves are most usually drawn 
upon a basis of groups of numbers, instead of using each consecutive 
one, 10 or 5 being convenient numbers to use in grouping. Thus the 
results of the measurement of the length of the radius in 100 students 
(females) were the following, grouped into groups each of five milli- 
meters extent: 

Extent in millimeters of each group Frequency; i.e., number of individuals within each 

group 

210-215 1 

215-220 1 

220-225 5 
225-230 . . 11 

230-235 12 

235-240 12 

240-245 16 

245-250 8 

250-255 9 

255-260 7 

260-265 5 

265-270 4 

270-275 1 

275-280 2 

280-285 4 

285-290 2 

100 

A frequency curve may be easily made from the above by erecting 16 
columns, of which the first and second have a height of 1, the third one 
of 5, the fourth one of 11, and so on, the crest, which indicates in a general 
way the average of all, falling at the top of the seventh column, which is 
16 units high. Where, as in this case, a short column intervenes between 
two taller ones, as at the thirteenth column, which is 1, followed by 
higher ones, it is an indication that the groups of units are too small, 
and tend to make a jagged frequency curve. In such a case the curve 
may be smoothed out by combining the groups into larger ones. If, for 
example, we combined these groups in pairs and had an interval of ten, 
instead of five, for each, we would avoid any such intermediate short 
columns, thus: 

Groups, with 10-millimeter intervals Frequency (individuals in each group) 

210-220 2 

220-230 16 

230-240 24 

240-250 24 

250-260 16 

260-270 9 

270-280 3 

280-290 6 



INTRODUCTION 29 

In this particular case the doubling of the intervals for the groups 
does not smooth out the drop near the right-hand end of the curve, but 
the entire curve becomes otherwise more symmetiical. The other way to 
smooth out an irregular curve is to increase the number of instances, 
measure another hundred, for instance, which would tend, by the doctrine 
of chances, to fill out the short columns. 

One of the main uses of frequency curves is to show the general 
distribution of a certain set of measures or other statistics. The highest 
point in the curve marks the point of greatest frequency, the one that 
has the most votes, so to speak, and is called the mode. In the measure- 
ment of the same parts in two distinct human races, it may often happen 
that the modes of the two races differ from each other, which would be 
well brought out by superposing one curve upon the other. A bi-modal 
curve, or one with two crests, is sometimes found to be the result of the 
use of mixed material, that is, in anthropology, from the mixture of two 
differently proportioned races; and while this does not always prove to 
be the cause, such a curve always leads the anthropologist to suspect 
that such may be the case. 

III. The Arithmetical Mean 

This is what is usually referred to as the average, and is one of the 
first things to be ascertained from the usual results of the measurement 
of a certain length in a number of individuals. The most simple method 
of obtaining it is by actual summation, i.e., adding the several results 
together, and dividing by the number of instances (individuals). Thus, 
in the following measurements of the cristal breadth (between the hips) 
of the same 100 students that furnished the radius length measurements, 
the arithmetical mean is calculated by actual summation : 



Total value 

205 

215 

225 

235 

1,960 

3,825 

5,300 

4,950 

4,845 

4,130 

915 

315 



ARITHMETIC MEAN OF THE 


CRISTAL BREADTH 


Items in groups 
200-210 


(100 female students) 

Frequency Value of each 

1 X 205 


210-220 


1 


X 


215 


220-230 


1 


X 


225 


230-240 


1 


X 


235 


240-250 


8 


X 


245 


250-260 


15 


X 


255 


260-270 


20 


X 


265 


270-280 


18 


X 


275 


280-290 


17 


X 


285 


290-300 


14 


X 


295 


300-310 


3 


X 


305 


310-320 


1 


X 


315 



100 27,120 

27,120 -r- 100 = 271.2, the arithmetic mean. 

In this case it will be noticed that the value taken for each group is 
the mid-value between the two extremes of the group. There is still 



30 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



some little chance of error, since the separate individual measures may be 
anywhere between the limits of each group, yet the error is inconsiderable. 
A second method of obtaining the arithmetic mean is by assuming a 
mean, which may be any mid-value in the list, and calculating the correc- 
tions. It is as follows : 



Items in groups ! 


/ 

Frequency 


d 
Deviation of 
the class 


f-d 
Product 


2 
Summation 


200-210 


1 


- 5 5 




210-220 


1 


- 4 4 


- 22 


220-230 


1 


*~~ O 


- 3 




230-240 


1 


- 2 


- 2 




240-250 


8 


- 1 


- 8 




250-260 


15 (assumed ave.) 










' 260-270 


20 


+ 1 


+ 20 




270-280 


18 


+ 2 


+ 36 




280-290 


17 


+ 3 +51 




290-300 


14 


+ 4 +56 


+ 184 


300-310 


3 


+ 5 +15 




310-320 

i 


1 


+ 6 +6 





The first two columns are as before. An average is assumed, in this 
case we take the group with 15 instances, with the value of 255, the 
mid-value between 250 and 260, the two extremes of the group taken. 
We then prepare the third column, by marking the group taken as 0, and 
successively designating those that are lower as 1, 2, 3, and so on; 
while the larger groups are also successively, counting from the 0, +1, 
+2, +3, and so on. The fourth column is made up of the product of the 
items of the third and the second, the product of the number of instances 
into the class value of each group. These are summed up in two sums, 
the + and the , the algebraic sum of the two is obtained, and alge- 
braically added to the assumed average. This gives the actual average. 

Here, assuming the average to fall at 255, we get, by multiplying 
column four by column three, the sum of 22 and the sum of +184. 
The algebraic sum of the two is +162, which should be multiplied by 10, 
the class interval, and then divided by 100, the total number of indi- 
viduals used. This gives us, first, 1620, and then 16.20, which, having 
a + sign, must be added to the assumed average, 255, to get the true 
average, 271.2, the same as by the other method. If the reader should 
start with the same two first columns, and assume any other average, as, 
for example, 275 or 285, the final result would be the same. 

This method is not any simpler to understand than the other, but has 
the distinct advantage of using lower numbers. 

IV. Deviation 

The arithmetical mean, or average, represents the value of each of the 
separate items if they were all evened up, with those which were more 



INTRODUCTION 



31 



than the mean balanced up with those that were less to the same amount, 
yet it is probable that no single item of the entire list is the exact equiva- 
lent of the mean itself, but that each one deviates from this ideal, by so 
much more or by so much less. Now, it is important to know, in a given 
list, how much the items vary from the mean, in order to compare lists of 
different measurements, for the purpose of seeing how great the variation. 

Now, the amount of variation, that is, whether all the items of a given 
list keep rather near the mean, or whether they swing away from it 
considerably, and thus show a large range of variation, is important to 
know. This cannot be done by selecting from the list the two extremes 
and comparing these, for this gives simply the range of variation, in which 
both extremes may be unusual while the rest vary but little from the mean. 
One must instead find the exact amount of deviation from the mean shown 
by each item on the list, add them all together, and divide by. the number 
of items, which gives us an average or mean of the deviations, the Aver- 
age Deviation, which takes into consideration, not simply two items but 
all of them. 

This may , of course, be done by comparing each individual item with 
the mean, adding all together algebraically, and dividing this sum by the o ' ' 
number of items, but, in a long series of items, such a method would be 
too laborious. This work may be materially shortened by using a method 
similar to that employed for getting the mean. As an illustration the 
average deviation of the preceding table of cristal breadths may be 
calculated as follows : 



Items in groups 


Frequency 


Deviation from the 
mean 


Summation 


210-215 


2 


12 


24 


215-220 





11 





220-225 


10 





225-230 1 


9 


9 


230-235 8 





235-240 1 7 


7 


240-245 2 6 


12 


245-250 3 


5 


15 


250-255 5 


4 


20 


255-260 


7 


3 


21 


260-265 


7 


2 


14 


265-270 


14 


1 


14 


270-275 


12 





271.20 mean 


275-280 


15 


1 


15 


280-285 


8 


2 


16 


285-290 


6 


3 


18 


290-295 


7 


4 


28 


295-300 


6 


5 


30 


300-305 


2 


6 


12 


305-310 


1 


7 


7 


310-315 


* 


8 


8 



32 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

In the above list, which is grouped in fives instead of in tens, as in the 
table above, the group 270-275 is excepted, as containing the mean. 
The frequency is indicated in the next column, and in the next is indi- 
cated the rank of each group, above and below that containing the mean. 
In the fourth is placed the product of rank of each group with the fre- 
quency of each, and all, both plus and minus, are added together arith- 
metically, since the ainount of the deviation, and not its direction, is 
sought in each case. This amount is found to be 126 minus, and 134 plus, 
or 260 in all. But as we have been considering groups of five units, the 
actual value of these deviations must be multiplied by 5, or 260 X 5 = 
1300, and as the items included within the group which contains the 
mean do not count as deviating, this sum is divided by the total num- 
ber of items, in this case 100, which gives the Average Deviation, if equally 
distributed to each item, as 13.00. 

There are, however, several small errors not noted in the above, which 
may now be removed by a little calculation. If the mean were at exactly 
the mid-point of the group in which it lies, i.e., 272.50, the calculation 
would be correct as it stands, but in this case it is a very little less than 
this, or 271.20,a discrepancy of 1.30, which should be subtracted from each 
item on the minus side of the line, and added to each on the plus side. The 
items represented on the two sides naturally balance in part, as may be 
found by subtracting the one group from the other, in this case 126 
from 134, leaving 8 to account for; the sum of the deviation of these 8 
items, each of which differs from the figure used by 1.30 ,or in all 10.40, 
must be added to the sum obtained before division; that is, 1300 + 10.40 
= 1310.40. This corrects the items except those within the group 270 - 
275, which may be supposed to differ from the mean by the same amount, 
1.30. Hence the sum 1.30 X 12 (the number of items involved) or 15.60 
must be also added, which will increase the total figure to 1326.00. When 
this amended sum is divided by the total number of items the corrected 
figure is 13.26, the correct Average Deviation. 

For calculating the deviation of a series of numbers from a mean most 
statisticians recommend, instead of the above, the Standard Deviation, 
in which the calculations are based upon the squares of the successive 
deviations, rather than the simple numbers, and the final result is ob- 
tained by extracting the square root of the results thus obtained. This 
method yields more satisfactory results, but involves more that is purely 
mathematical. 

IV Coefficient of Variation 

The calculation of deviation shows the actual amount by which the 
single item?, on the aveiage, deviate from the mean; in such studies as 
are discussed here, the actual number of millimeters. It is plain, however, 
that in a table which treats of short measures, involving, perhaps, 100 
to 150 mm., an average deviation of 10 mm. shows a larger relative devia- 



INTRODUCTION 33 

tion than twice this amount would in a table such as the femur length, 
where the lengths involved run between four and five hundred millimeters. 
In order, then, to directly compare deviations from different tables, we 
need some sort of index which expresses the relation of the actual devia- 
tion to the actual mean. Such an index is the Coefficient of Variation, or 
"Coefficient of Dispersion, " as it is also called, which uses the mean as 
the standard ( = 100), and compares with it the deviation, as follows: 

Deviation X 100 

Coefficient of Variation = : ^ . 

Mean 

In the example used here, where the average or Mean of the Cristal 
Breadths of 100 students is 271.20 mm., and the average deviation of the 

13 26 
items is 13.26, the Coefficient of Variation is ? - ' ~~ or 4.9 % of the mean. 

This figure gives thus the proportionate amount of variation exhibited 
by a certain measurement, as taken in a number of individuals, and may 
be compared directly with a similar figure taken from a different list, 
involving a totally different measurement. By such methods the amount 
of variation (proportionately) in the radius length could be compared 
with the amount of variation in the femur length, and the conclusion 
definitely taken as to which is relatively the more variable, in spite of 
he actual differences in the lengths of the two bones. 



PART I 
Osteometry; the Measurement of the Bones, Including the Skull* 

I. THE SKULL 

Orientation 

Orientation of the Skull; Horizontals; Norms. When a student 
takes a human skull into his hands in order to study, not its bones and 
other anatomical features, but its contours and proportions, and seeks 
to compare it in these particulars with a series of other skulls, he finds 
that the slightest change of position profoundly alters the contours to 
be examined and compared, and that it is consequently necessary to 
establish a fixed position for all, so that they may be properly compared. 
Furthermore, this fixed position must be universally used, as otherwise 
comparisons of the work of several investigators, especially in the use 
of photographs and contour curves, could not be made. 

There is thus presented at the outset the question of an exact, uniform 
position, in which all skulls may be readily placed, and capable of applica- 
tion by all anthropologists everywhere. 

Assuming, as we may, that skulls should be placed upright, with 
the median sagittal plane in a vertical position, the question resolves 
itself into determining the exact point at which the skull should be ar- 
rested in a rotation about a transverse axis, at right angles to this upright 
median plane; whether for example, it should be set as it naturally rests 
upon a level table, with the face canted back, or whether it should be 
raised to a position more in accord with that in which the head is habit 
ually held in life. The first position suggested is certainly not advisable 

* The author here and throughout this work use the term Osteometry in the 
larger sense of the measurement of the skeleton and its parts in distinction from that 
of the entire body when still clothed in flesh, or Somatometry. Historically the skeletal 
part first measured was the skull, to the study of which the term Craniometry was 
naturally applied, after which the word Osteometry was used for the remaining bones. 
Aside from the skull, in which a series of bones is immovably welded together to 
make a firm complex, thus forming a single subject for treatment, we have the pelvic 
bones, which have but little meaning when separated. For the measurement of 
this complex as a whole there has developed, as in the skull, a distinct term, the word 
Pelvimetry, and for other more or less closely associated series we may need eventually 
to coin such words as Cheirometry, Podometry, etc. There is no question, however, 
but that a word is necessary to signify the measurements of all the skeletal parts, 
and that that word is, Osteometry. 

35 



36 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



since a skull with the mandible attached rests at a very different angle 
from one without this part, and in the latter case it is impossible to make 
the proper substitution, or to know the height and other proportions 
of the missing part. Again, granting that a skull with mandible could 
be thus treated, the angular slant of the facial profile and of the forehead, 
characters essential to comparisons, would depend largely upon such 
points as the length of the chin, and the length or condition of the teeth, 
points which are of little anthropological importance^ and have no 
reference to the more essential measurements of the skull. 

The need was early felt, then, of the establishment of a standard plane 
defined in terms of topographical landmarks existing on the skull deprived 
of mandible, upon which a skull could always be placed preparatory to 




FIG. 17. Skull placed on the horizontal used by Petrus Camper (1786). 

examination, photography, tracing of contours, or any similar procedure, 
involving comparison. The early Dutch anthropologist, Petrus Camper, 
in his classical investigation of the facial angle, published posthumously 
in 1786, employed as the base a line drawn through the nasal spine and 
the center of the auditory meatus, and compared with this a line roughly 
tangent to the profile. The angle included between these two was the 
facial angle, while the lower line, which could be converted into a plane 
by including both meatuses, formed a horizontal plane upon which 
different skulls could be placed for comparison (Fig. 17). This plane, or 
"horizontal" was modified a few years later by Geoffrey de St. Hilaire 
(1795), who retained the auditory opening for the more posterior point, 
but changed the anterior one from the nasal spine to the free margin of 
the incisor teeth (Fig. 18). This was in two particulars a change for the 
worse, as it tilted the skull much too far back to be natural, and employed 




OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



37 



a point which necessitated the presence of teeth. Seeking to remedy 
these defects, Jules Cloquet (1821) proposed for the anterior point, not 




FIG. 18. Skull placed on the horizontal used by Geoffrey de St. Hillaire (1795). 

the free margin of the teeth, but that of the alveoli, while he still retained 
the center of the meatus posteriorly (Fig. 19) . 




FIG. 19. Skull placed upon the horizontal used by Jules Cloquet (1821). 

Much later (1862) Broca established the famous alveolo-condylar 
plane, which, from its general use by French anthropologists, is often 



38 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



called the "French horizontal" (Fig. 20). This takes as the three points 
for the establishment of the plane the alveolar point of Cloquet, and, 
instead of the meatuses, the lower point of the occipital condyles, 
that is, the point upon which these parts would naturally rest. This 
is not far from the natural position of a skull deprived of mandible, when 
laid on the table, and is approximately parallel to the plane of the optical 
axes of the two eyes when looking straight forward. 

Quite within the present generation another, and, we hope, final 
horizontal has been established, which has come into almost universal 
use, although there is still among the French a liking for the alveolo- 




H 



FIG. 20. Skull placed upon the alveo-condylar plane of Broca (1862). 



condylar plane of Broca. This is the plane established by the Interna- 
tional Anthropological Association at a meeting at Frankfort-on-Main, 
and hence known as the " Frankfort Horizontal " (Fig. 21). * This, unlike 
the preceding, rests upon four points: the highest point in the margins 
of the two meatuses, and the lowest points in the margins of the two 
orbits. This has the one disadvantage of resting upon four points 
instead of three, so that, unless a skull is perfectly symmetrical, and few 
are, the plane has to be a sort of concession or approximation, but has 

* The Frankfort Horizontal was first proposed at the meeting of the Craniometric 
Congress held at Munich in 1877; it was later ratified at the International Congress of 
Anthropologists at their meeting at Frankfort a/M, in 1884, hence the name. 

Cf. ECKER u. His: Ueber die Horizontalebene des menschlichen Schadels. 
Archiv. f. Anthropol., Bd. 9. 1877, pp. 271 +. 

GOLDSTEIN: Le plan horizontal du crane. Rev. anthropol., 1884. Series 2. T. 7. 
pp. 680 +. 

GARSON, J. G.: The Frankfort Craniometric Agreement, with critical remarks 
thereon. Journ. Anthropol. Inst., London. Vol. 14, pp. 64+. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



39 



the more than compensatory advantage of being almost equally deter- 
minable on the living; that is, the head of a living subject may be set up 
on the Frankfort horizontal as readily as a skull, and thus the two may 
be directly compared. It is also the claim of the originators, that this 
horizontal places a skull more nearly in the usual position during life than 
do any of the others. 

In order to set a given skull upon one of these horizontals it is first 
put into a standard known as a craniophore, which consists essentially 
of two metal jaws controlled by a screw, the whole capable of turning 
in the three planes. The skull is clamped into this by using either 
the anterior or the posterior lip of the occipital foramen, and the skull 




FIG. 21. Skull placed upon the Frankfort horizontal (1884). 

turned in the two vertical planes until the points in question are on the 
same horizontal plane, i.e., at the same distance above the plane of the 
table upon which the craniophore rests. To determine this a vertical 
rod is used, set on a standard, and carrying an adjustible pointer. It 
is placed on the table with the craniophore, and placed in any position 
desired, while the skull is adjusted until the pointer, at the same level, 
points directly to each of the points used in determining the horizontal. 
A skull, thus placed upon a horizontal, may be considered a cube 
with its six faces, although with irregular surfaces. The upper and lower 
faces are parallel to the given horizontal, or to the plane of the table, 
the two lateral faces are parallel to" the median vertical plane, and the 
anterior and posterior faces are perpendicular to the four others. These 
four aspects, which are the ones used for comparison, and in the photo- 
graphy of skulls, are known as normce, and are as follows: 



40 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

norma frontalis full front view. 

norma occipitalis back view, parallel to the foregoing. 

norma verticalis top view, from directly above. 

norma basilaris view of the base, parallel with the foregoing, but viewed 

from the opposite direction. 

normce laterales There are naturally two of these, right and left. These 

(deztra et sinistra) are views taken directly from the side, and give their 

features in the reverse order. The full profile should 
be the same when traced from either side, but that seen 
from the right faces the right, and vice versa. 

The Cubic Craniophore, described above (p. 20) is especially designed 
to define these six normse by placing a skull in a cubic frame. When 
oriented according to the FH* the six faces of the craniophore coincide 
exactly to the normse. The skull is thus exactly placed. For use with 
the diagraph, or for photography, and may be properly placed by resting 
the craniophore on the table upon any face, as desired. 

Naturally a skull needs to be held in a craniophore and thus accurately 
oriented for certain purposes only, mainly for drawing, photographing, 
and tracing contours. For obtaining the ordinary measurements, and 
for examining the morphological peculiarities it is best placed on a table 
before the observer, and for the measurement of circumferences by means 
of the tape, it is most conveniently held in the lap. A simple and con- 
venient device for much of the work consists of a cloth cushion, nine inches 
square and partly filled with bran. This is placed upon the table in 
front of the observer, and the skull put upon it. This not only saves 
much wear and tear of the skulls, which are likely to suffer from direct 
contact with the hard table top, but it will be found that the skull may 
be held by the bag in any position desired, thus releasing both hands 
for other work. Not only may many morphological features be thus 
conveniently drawn, as they do not depend upon orientation, but the 
majority of the measurements may be more easily made upon a skull 
thus firmly placed. 

Landmarks 

Landmarks Established on the Skull for Use in Craniometry. 

For use in the new science of craniometry Broca, an early French anthro- 
pologist, established a number of definite points on the skull surface, 
which were mostly without special anatomical significance and which 
were consequently without special anatomical names, but which became 
of importance to him as the termini of essential linear measurements. 
To many of these he gave distinctive names, such as glabella, inion, 
bregma, and so on, thus avoiding the inconvenience of using a long phrase 

* The Frankfort Horizontal is commonly designated by its two initials, given in 
capitals, and will be so used throughout this book. 



RY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 




41 




interns 

hv..etrical relatioi 
ore variable in position, 
than a point. 



er investigators have added to 
a hundred in general use, the 
the skull surface, external 

.ion, arc located 
. aphv, and arc ihcrc- 
a region, rather 



fmt 




Fro. 22. Anatomical landmarks on the skull, norma frontalis. For the meaning of the 
abbreviations, see the list on pp. 42-48.. 

The following list of such anthropological landmarks includes those in 
common use, with their customary abbreviations.* The arrangement 
is alphabetical. Points situated laterally, and therefore paired, are 
marked with a f; those not so marked are median. 

* The abbreviations given here are those already in more or less general use, and 
should not be varied. When thoroughly learned they will be found convenient to 
use in notes and manuscript in place of the full names, and may serve as a convenient 
sort of shorthand which will save much time. 



42 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



acanthion (acan) 



alveolon (alv) 



The Rpint 
of tin- 
much 

wntere a line drawn 
"the alveolar ridges crosses 
r line. In practice this point is readily^ 
id by placing a fine knitting needle across,',-;'- 
late, just back of the posterior ends of the W 
blar ridge, and marking the point where this ? 
rosses the median suture of the palate bones. 




FIG. 23. Anatomical landmarks on the skull; norma lateralis. 

abbreviations, see pp. 4248. 



For the meaning of the 



asterion (ast) f 



auricular e (au) f 



A point behind the base of the mastoid process, 
where the lambdoidal, parieto-squamous, and oc- 
cipito-squamous sutures come together, defining 
the boundaries of parietal, occipital, and temporal 
bones. 

A point vertically above the center of the auditory 
meatus, and crossing the root or base of the zygoma. 
This point is but a few millimeters above the porion. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



43 



basion (ba) 

condylion laterale (cdl) f 
condylion mediale (cdm) f 
coronale (co) f 



The meeting place of the coronal and sagittal 

sutures; that is, the point of meeting of the two 

parietals with the frontal. 

The median point in the anterior margin of the 

occipital foramen. 

The most lateral point on the surface of the condyle 

of the mandible. 

The most medial point on the surface of the condyle 

of the mandible. 

The two points in the lateral margins of the frontal 

which mark the termini of the maximum breadth 

of this bone. These points n jgt be symmetrically 

placed with reference to the median line. 



'xrh 




xns 



pr 



FIG. 24. 'Anatomical landmarks on the skull; details about face and nose, 
ing of the abbreviations see the list on pp. 42-48. 



For the mean- 



coronion (cr) f 
dacryon (d) f 



ectoconchion (ec) f 



ectomolare (ecm) f 



The point of the coronoid process of the mandible. 
A point just within the inner margin of the orbit, 
where the lacrimo-maxillary suture meets frontal 
bone (Fig. 24). 

The point where the orbital length line, parallel 
to the upper border, meets the outer rim. This 
line must be perpendicular to that measuring the 
orbital breadth. 

The most lateral point on the outer surface of the 
alveolar ridge, opposite the middle of the second 
upper molar tooth; used in taking the maxillary 
breadth. (Fig. 25, x). 



44 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



endomolare (enm) f 



euryon (eu) f 



frontomalare orUtale (fmo) t 

frontomalare temporale (fmt) f 
frontotemporale (ft) f 

genion (gen) 



The most medial point on the inner surface of the 
alveolor ridge opposite the middle of the second upper 
molar tooth; used in taking the palatal breadth 
(Fig. 25, </). 

The two points opposite each other on the sides 
of the skull which form the termini of the line of 
greatest breadth. 

The orbital end of the fronto-jugal (fronto-malar) 
suture, that is, its superficial part. 
The outer, or temporal, end of the foregoing. 
The most medial point on the incurve of the tem- 
poral ridge, just above the fronto-jugal suture. 
The median point of the genial tubercles of the body 
of the mandible, lingual side. 




FIG. 25. Anatomical landmarks concerned with maxillary and palatal measurements. 
For the meaning of the abbreviations see pp. 42-48. 



glabella (g) 

gnathion (gn) 
gonion (go) f 



The most prominent point in the median line 
between the two eyebrow ridges, a little above 
the fronto-nasal suture. 

The lowest median point on the lower border of the 
mandible. 

Literally, the angle of the mandible between body 
and ramus. In practice this is hard to determine 
in jaws with a rounded angle, but in cases where this 
is pronounced the point taken is the anterior lower 
corner of the square process forming the angle. 
Where the outline is softer and more rounded, by 
following the marginal contour backwards from the 
body, there is seen a slight curve upwards, imme- 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



45 



hormion (h) 
infradentale (id) 

inion (i) 



klitiim (k) 

lambda (1) 
lacrimale Qa) f 



diately behind which there is at least the suggestion 
of a tubercle. This is the point taken as the gonion. 
The median point in the suture between vomer 
and sphenoid; the median point where the former 
overlaps the latter. Seen in norma basilaris. 
The highest point in the anterior alveolar mar- 
gin of the mandible in the median line, between 
the two medial lower incisors. It corresponds 
to the prosthion of the upper jaw. 
This point, although one of the first employed 
and named, was rather loosely designated as the 
highest point in the occipital protuberance, or 
even as simply the occipital protuberance it- 
self. It was furthermore considered to be the 
most posterior point in the outer surface of the 
skull, so that the "glabella-inion line," drawn 
between the two points named, was considered to 
measure the maximum length. In some skulls 
this may be the case, but more often such is not 
the case, hence the establishment of the opistho- 
cranion, as the terminus of the maximum length 
line, which may or may not coincide with the inion. 
In the majority of skulls it may be denned in its 
original intention as the center of the occipital 
protuberance, although it should never be placed at 
or near the end of an elongated, downward-project- 
ing process, which sometimes occurs. When the 
occipital protuberance is weak or ill-defined, the 
inion may be ascertained as the point where the 
superior curved (nuchal) lines cross the median 
plane. 

An internal inion, the endinlon, is located at the 
crossing of the crucial ridges which divide the 
cerebral and cerebellar fossae. Its position may 
be determined by inserting the thumb into the 
occpital foramen, and when this is done the fore- 
finger can readily determine the external point 
directly opposite it. Some observers use this ex- 
ternal point, opposite the endinion, as the true 
inion, and determine it by this means, marking 
its position upon the outer surface with a pencil. 
In many cases these two inia will be found to co- 
incide, but as this is not always the case, it is recom- 
mended for each investigator to state definitely 
which point he uses. 

A median internal point, best located in a median 
sagittal section, as hi Fig. 26. It is the median 
point in the posterior margin of the sella turcica, 
which lodges the hypophysis in life, and is thus 
placed opposite the tylion. 

The meeting place of the sagittal and lambdoidal 
sutures, of the two parietal bones with the occipital. 
The point of intersection of the posterior lacrimal 
crest with the fronto-lacrimal suture (Fig. 24). 



46 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



linguale (li) 



lingulare (Ig) f 



The upper terminus of the mandibular symphysis 
on the posterior, or lingual, aspect; the median 
point in the posterior alveolar margin of the man- 
dible, on the other side of the bone from the infra- 
dentaie. 

The point of the lingula, or thin plate project- 
ing over the inferior dental canal upon the inner 
surface of the mandibular ramus. 




FIG. 26. Certain important measures obtained from the median craniogram. This 
figure was taken from the skull of a female negro from the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York City, No. 997,745. 



maxillofrontale (mf) f 
mastoidale (ms) f 
mentale (ml) f 



The point of intersection of the anterior lacrimal 
crest, or the crest prolonged, with the fron to-maxil- 
lary suture (Fig. 24). 

The lowest point on the mastoid process; that is 
the point of contact with a table upon which the 
skull is placed, when resting upon its base. 
The lowest point in the margin of the mental foramen. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



47 



nasion (n) 
nasospinale (ns) 



obelion (ob) 



ophryon (on) 

opisthion (o) 
opisthocranion (op) 



(ol) 



orbitale (or) f 
pogonion (pg) 
porion (po) f 

prosphenion (ps) 
prosthion (pr) 

pteryon (pt) f 



The upper end of the internasal suture, where 
it meets the frontal bone; the point where the two 
nasal bones and the frontal come together. 
This is practically the acanlhion, the "nasal spine" 
of the older authors, but avoids the frequent errors 
caused by the varying degree of development found 
in this process. This point is defined as a point 
(usually within the bone substance), where a line 
tangent to the two lateral curves of the lower 
margin of the piriform aperture crosses the median 
line. In practice it is usual to take the lowest point 
of this margin upon one side of the median line. 
The point in the sagittal, or interparietial, suture 
where it is intersected by a line drawn to connect 
the two small interparietal foramina. In the 
frequent cases in which there is but one of these, 
this point may be readily determined by it, and 
where both are absent, the point lies approximately 
at the place where the suturing is the simplest. 
. The point in the median line of the frontal bone 
where it is crossed by a line drawn to connect the 
two fronlolemporalia. 

The median point of the posterior margin of the 
occipital foramen. 

This point is anatomically an indefinite one, and 
is simply the posterior end of the maximum length 
line of the skull, drawn from the glabella; the point 
where the posterior leg of the compass rests when 
spanning the greatest length. It may coincide 
with the inion, but is usually above this point. It 
is a synonym for exlremum occiput and occipitale. 
A point in the bony palate where the line drawn 
tangent to the curves in the alveolar margin back 
of the two medial incisor teeth crosses the median 
line (Fig. 25). 

The lowest point in the margin of the orbit; one of 
the points used in denning the Frankfort Horizontal. 
The most projecting median point of the chin, on 
the anterior surface (mental process). 
The uppermost point in the margin of the auditory 
meatus; the points which, with the orbit alia, define 
the Frankfort Horizontal. 

The median point in the spheno-ethmoidal suture 
upon the inner surface of the skull (Fig. 11). 
The lowest point of the intermaxillary suture, upon 
the alveolar margin, between the two medial in- 
cisors. 

This is a region, rather than a point, and desig- 
nates the upper end of the greater wing of the 
sphenoid, with the bordering bones, frontal, pari- 
etal, and temporal. Here the relation of these 
bones, and consequently of the sutures, is markedly 
variable, and is the subject of special anthropological 
interest. 



48 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



rhinion (rhi) 
sphenoidale (sphen) 



slaphylion (sta) 

slephanion (st) 
subspinale (ss) 



supraglabellare (sg) 



vertex (v) 
zygion (zy) f 

zygomaxillare (zm) f 



The lower free end of the internasal suture. 
A median, internal point, best located in a median 
sagittal section as in Fig. 28. It is the median 
point of the anterior clinoid process, and thus 
marks the anterior margin of the sella turcica, 
opposite the Klition. Called also tylion. 
The point in the median line of the back of the 
hard palate (interpalatal suture) where it is crossed 
by a line drawn tangent to the curves of the posterior 
margin of the palate (Fig. 25). 

The point where the temporal ridge crosses the 
coronal suture. 

A median point where the base of the nasal spine 
passes into the alveolar portion of the upper jaw. 
This is best seen in a profile curve, where it lies 
at the deepest part of the inward curve. It is 
of use in the study of alveolar prognathism , as it marks 
the upper limit of the alveolar region of the maxillary. 
It lies about midway between nasospinale and 
prosthion. 

The deepest median point in the supraglabellar 
fossa. As this fossa is present only when there 
is some development of the superciliary ridges 
the point in question is frequently absent, or but 
slightly marked, especially in females, but when 
even a slight indication of it is present, its location 
can be made out in a profile median curve of the 
frontal bone, It serves to divide this curve into 
the two portions, pars glabellaris and pars cerebralis, 
the relative pioportions of which aid in the deter- 
mination of the relative size of the supraorbital 
crests. This point nearly coincides with the ophryon, 
a point now seldom used. 

The highest median point in a skull, when placed 
on the Frankfort Horizontal. 

The most lateral point of the zygomatic arch; a 
point determined by trial measurement and not 
by anatomical relations. 

The lowest point externally in the suture between 
the maxillary and jugal (malar) bones. 



Measurements 

Prescribed Measurements of the Skull; International Agreement of 
Monaco, 1906. From the time of Broca individual anthropologists were 
in the habit of employing whatever measurements of the skull they found 
desirable, without regard to the work of others, and, in addition to this, 
did not correspond in the method of taking the same measurement. This 
had the advantage of gradually increasing the number of measurements 
employed, as new ones were being constantly devised by these independ- 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 49 

ent investigators, but had the obvious disadvantage of rendering a direct 
comparison of the work of different craniometrists uncertain or impossible. 

To improve this disadvantageous state of things the International 
Anthropological Congress of 1906, which met at Monaco in April of that 
year, appointed a committee to establish a definite list of the most com- 
monly used and essential cranial measurements, to include also the pre- 
cise method by which each should be taken.* 

These measurements were presented under 32 numbers, although certain 
ones, like the " Cranial heights, " and the "Measures of the bony palate, " 
included several separate measures. A few were marked "facultative," 
to be further tried out before becoming canonical. 

Since that time anthropometrists have endeavored to keep to these 
prescriptions, although they are considered purely as an expression of 
the general opinion, and not in any way binding upon the individual 
investigator. It is, however, to be expected that in case of departure 
from the prescription a good reason for such departure should be given, 
to avoid careless, or otherwise purposeless, variation from the generally 
accepted standard. 

The measurements selected by the Agreement of 1906, are given here. 
In compiling them the original reports, as given in French, German, 
and English versions, were used, but the language used here is put into 
more recent form, and employs in the designations of termini many land- 
marks more recently determined, and precisely denned in the list above. 
They are the following: 

A. THE SKULL PROPER 

1. Maximum Cranial length; the greatest diameter of the cranium in 
the median sagittal plane. 

Anatomical points; in front, the glabella behind, the most salient 
point of the supra-occipital in the median line; the opis- 
thocranium. Cr. 

In taking this measure one point of the calipers is held upon the 
glabella, while the other is passed over the surface of the supra- 
occipital in the median line. The point which gives the maximum 
measurement is the opisthocranium, and this measurement is the 
one sought. 

2. Glabella-inion length; this is similar to the preceding, except that 
a definite point, the inion, is used. This point is often difficult of exact 
location, however, and the value of this measurement may be considered 
somewhat doubtful (cf. above, under Landmarks inion). Cr. 

3. Maximum cranial breadth; this is the greatest breadth that can be 
obtained while keeping the two points of the craniometer opposite each 

"The members of this Committee were as follows: Waldeyer (president), G. 
Sergi (vice-president), Papillault (secretary), Hamy, Herv6, Lissauer, v. Luschan, 
Pittard, Pozzi, Verneau. 

4 



50 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

other; the maximum transverse diameter, perpendicular to the median 
plane. Cr. 

4. Cranial height 

(a) basilo-bregmatic (basion-bregmd) height; from basion to bregma. 

(6) auriculo-bregmatic height; the difference in level between porion 
and bregma. Several special forms of instrument have been 
devised for taking this measurement, but the simplest method, 
and fairly accurate after a little practice, is that of using the 
rod compass (the anthropometer .put together in a special 
way (cf. above, under Instruments). The skull is held in the 
left hand, and the rod compass is held so far as possible in a 
plane parallel to the median sagittal plane of the skull. The 
upper leg should be drawn out longer than the lower one, the 
latter placed on the porion and the upper across the top of 
the cranium, directly upon the bregma. 

5. Least frontal breadth; the distance between the two fronto- 
temporalia. SC. 

6. Greatest frontal breadth; the largest measure that can be obtained 
by the slide compass, both points of the instrument being placed on the 
lateral edges of the frontal bone; the distance between the two coronalia. 
SC. 

7. Bimastoid breadth; the distance between the most lateral portions 
of the outer surfaces of the two mastoid processes, measured perpendicu- 
larly to the median plane (cf. modification of this below). Cr. 

8. Bizygomatic breadth; the greatest breadth obtained by measuring 
across the zygomatic arches, perpendicularly to the median plane. The 
points where the two feet of the compass rest when this measurement is 
obtained are the zygia, movable points like the 'opisthocranium. 
Cr or RC. 

9. Nasion-basion line; the distance between the two points named. Cr. 

10. Prosthion-basion line; the distance between the two points named. 
Cr or SC. 

11. Nasion-gnathion line; the distance between the two points named. 
The mandible must be put in place, the teeth in contact, and the condyles 
resting in the mandibular (glenoid) fossae of the skull. SC or RC. 

12. Nasion-prosthion line; the distance between the two points named. 
SC or RC. 

13. Nasal length; the upper limit for this is the nasion; the lower is 
theoretically the nasospinale. Since this latter point is usually within 
the substance of the bony process forming the nasal spine, the lowest point 
of the lower margin of the nasal aperture, a little on one side of the median 
line, is used instead (cf. under Landmarks; subspinale, above). SC. 

14. Nasal breadth; the greatest breadth found within the lateral mar- 
gins of the nasal aperture, measured horizontally; i.e., perpendicularly to 
the median plane. SC. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 51 

15. Interorbital breadth; the distance between the two lacrimalia (cf. 
under Measurements slightly modified, below). SC. 

16. Orbital breadth; the inner terminus of this line is the dacryon, the 
outer that point in the outer rim of the orbit which gives the maximum dis- 
tance from the dacryon. This latter is called the ectoconchion, a movable 
point. Let the line run as nearly as possible parallel with the upper and 
lower orbital rims, which are inclined to be fairly straight and parallel 
(cf. under Measurements slightly modified, below). SC. 

17. Orbital height; the maximum distance between the upper and lower 
borders of the orbit at right angles to the previous measure (No. 16). In 
taking this avoid the supra-orbital notch. SC. 

18. Maxillo-alveolar breadth; the distance between the two ectomalaria, 
i.e., the most lateral points upon the outer surface of the alveolar ridge 
opposite the second molar teeth. This measure gives the maximum 
breadth of the alveolar ridge, and is to be taken at right angles to the 
median axis of the palate (the prosthion-alveolon line of the next measure- 
ment). Any exostosesor other projections, such as abnormal tooth roots, 
are to be avoided. SC or Cr. 

18 (bis). Maxillo-alveolar length; the prosthion-alveolon line. The 
alveolon is determined by the use of a fine knitting needle laid across the 
posterior ends of the alveolar processes of the two sides. SC. The point 
where this crosses the median line is the alveolon (cf. above, u 1 der 
alveolon; also Fig. 25}. 

19. Measures of the bony palate (tentative).* 

(a) Palatal length* .the orale-staphylion line. This is sufficiently 
described under the definitions of the two terms involved, 
under Landmarks; also shown in Fig. 25. SC. 

(6) Palatal breadth; the greatest transverse breadth found within 
the inner limits of the alveolar arch. The termini are found 
along the inner (lingual) sides of the second molar teeth, at 
the point v in Fig. 25 (ent omalare) . The line is to be 
drawn at right angles to the prosthion-alveolon line. SC. 

20. Orbito-alveolar height; the least distance between the lower border 
of the orbit and the alveolar border. This measure has been seldom 
used, and is now practically given up. 

21. Occipital foramen. 

(a) Length; taken in the median line, f rom basion to opisthion. SC. 
(6) Breadth; taken at right angles to the former; the maximum 
breadth line. SC. 

22. Sagittal cranial arc; the length of the curve of the cranium, 
measured along the median line with the tape measure, from nasion, 
over the vertex, to opisthion. For this measure the skull is most con- 
veniently held in the lap, or upon the knee, and the tape applied along 

* These two measurements, 19a and 6, have now come into general use and 
are no longer to be considered tentative. 



52 LABORATOKY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

the external surface, being held down from point to point by the finger 
or thumb. The same technique is followed in the two following. TM. 
23. Transverse cranial arc; taken from the projecting ridge at the 
base of the zygoma of one side, directly above the auditory opening, 
over the top of the skull to the corresponding point upon the opposite 
zygoma. The line must run in a single plane, and must include the 
bregma. TM. 

23. (bis). Horizontal circumference; measured around the head, over 
the superciliary ridges in front, and the occipital protuberance behind, 
in such a manner as to get the maximum circumference, while keeping 
the line in practically a single plane. TM. 

24. Cranial capacity; this is not a linear measurement, but the usual 
measurement of the cubic capacity of the interior cavity of the skull. 
The Committee made no decision concerning the exact method to employ 
relative to the material to be used, etc., but recommended the employ- 
ment of several control skulls, that is, either actual crania or artifically 
constructed cavities of known capacity, which are to be used frequently 
(between each two or three measurements) to test the method; also, 
whenever possible, it recommends the use of water in a rubber container. 

B. THE MANDIBLE 

25. Bicondylar breadth; the greatest breadth between the lateral 
surfaces of the two condyles. . SC or RC. 

26. Bigonial breadth; the greatest breadth between the summits or 
apices of the two angles of the jaw, the gonia. SC or RC. 

27. Length (height} of ramus; from the upper surface of the condyle 
to the apex of the angle (gonion). As this latter point is frequently 
difficult to determine with precision, take as this apex the point of 
intersection of the two lines drawn along the borders of the two parts 
involved, body and ramus. This measure may be made in a practical 
way by letting the mandible rest naturally upon a table, on its lower 
border, and measure from the surface of the table, along the posterior 
border of the ramus to the highest point of the condyle. SC. 

28. Breadth of ramus. 

(a) Minimum breadth; the least distance between anterior and 
posterior borders. 

(6) Maximum breadth (tentative); the breadth across the upper 
end of the ramus, from coronoid process to the posterior 
border. The two legs of the slide compass (or rod compass) 
are placed so as to receive the ramus, one leg applied along 
the posterior border, the other tangent to the anterior border 
of the coronoid process. SC or RC. 

29. Symphyseal height; the distance between the alveolar and the lower 
borders of the mandible, measured at the symphysis, in the median plane; 
the infra-dentale-gnathion line. SC. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 53 

30. Height of the body of the mandible (tentative) ; similar to the last, 
but taken in the vertical plane passing between the first and second molars 
SC. 

31. Maximum thickness of the body of the mandible (tentative); taken 
in the plane used in the last measurement, between the first and second 
molars. SC. 

32. Mandibular angle; this is the only angle included in the pre- 
scription of 1906, and records the inclination of the ramus to the plane 
of the body, i.e., that of the table upon which the jaw rests when set 
upon its lower border. For this, a special instrument is required, which 
consists essentially of two boards, hinged together, and with a device 
for measuring the angle between them in all positions. The mandible 
is placed upon one of these, and the other shut down until it is tangent 
to the posterior border of the ramus. 

Aside from the above measurement of the skull the committee also proposed 
some nineteen measurements of the head and face in the living subject. These will 
be found under their proper head (pp. 151-152). 

LATER MODIFICATIONS AND ADDITIONS 

This Agreement of 1906, with its prescribed measurements, has now 
been generally adopted, and forms the foundation of modern craniometry . 
A few of the original numbers have been discontinued; several have been 
modified; and a number of new ones added, the tabulation of which, 
added here, will bring the list of customary cranial measurements up 
to the present usage. There is, of course, no reason why an investigator 
should not make use of any selection or combination from this list 
which may suit his purpose, or why, if he has any special relation to 
show, he should not devise whatever new measurements he please, but 
in this latter case he must take care to define his new measurements with 
complete accuracy, so that others may follow him with precision. 

I. Measurements discontinued. 

No. 20. Orbito-alveolar height (on side of face.) . 

No. 30. Height of the body of the mandible (on side of jaw). 

No. 31. Maximum thickness of the body of the mandible (taken 

at the plane used in No. 30) . 

The last is still made use of occasionally. The two others were among 
those marked as tentative in the original prescription. 

II. Measurements slightly modified in later practice. 

No. 2. Glabella-inion length. This measure is now usually 
replaced by the nasion-inion, No. 33 below. This is 
also the case in the measurements based upon the dia- 
graph tracing of the sagittal contour of the skull (cf . pp. 46, 
58), where the perpendiculars used for the calvarial height, 
the bregma-position, etc., are erected upon the nasion- 
inion, and not the glabella-inion, as formerly. 



54 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

No. 4&. Auriculo-bregmatic height. For this the general usage 
has become to employ for the upper limit, not the bregma, 
but either the vertex, or, more usually, to measure from the 
porion, along a plane at right angles to the FH, to the point in 
the upper contour where the line happens to fall. This 
measure is conveniently taken with the anthropometer, 
arranged as a rod compass, holding the instrument upon 
a plane judged by the eye to be at right angles to the FH. 
It will be seen that slight differences in position will 
make no appreciable difference in the result, and after a 
little practice a skull may be held in the left hand, and the 
rod compass in the right, and an accurate measurement 
made, which may be tested by comparing it with others 
made either by the same observer or by someone else. 
No. 7. Bimastoid breadth. This measure is now taken between 
the two points of the two processes involved, instead of using 
their two outer surfaces. 

No. 15. Interorbital breadth. For this the maxillofrontale is 
now preferred to the lacrimale. When both are used they are 
distinguished as anterior and posterior respectively. 
No. 16. Orbital breadth. With the definite establishment of the 
three closely adjacent landmarks, maxillofrontale, dacryon, and 
lacrimale, it is clear that anyone of them could be used in obtaining 
this measurement. The Monaco Agreement calls for the dacryon. 
The other two are also frequently used, and some craniometrists 
employ all three, the better to compare with all previous work. 
No. 23. (bis) Horizontal circumference. The Monaco Agreement 
specifies that the tape should pass over the superciliary ridges. 
Some now employ, usually as a second horizontal circumference, 
one that passes over the ophryon. 

III. Added measurements, not included in the Monaco Agreement, but 
which have now come into general use.* 

33. Nasion-inion length; a variation of the glabella-inion, as ex- 
plained above, under II, No. 2. Cr. 

34. Gnathion-basion; measurement taken with the mandible in place, 
between the two points named. Cr or SC. 

35. Biauricular breadth; from one auriculare through to the other. Cr. 

36. (a; Outer biorbital breadth; between the two frontomalaria 
temporalia (fmt-fmt). SC. 

(&) Inner biorbital breadth; between the two frontomalaria orbitalia 
(fmo-fmo). 

* These added measurements are compiled from the measurements on the forms 
used for the craniometric data of a skull at three different institutions in the year 
1913, one German, one Swiss, and one American; viz., Freiburg, Prof. EUGEN FISCHER; 
Zurich, Prof. OTTO SCHLAGINHADFEN; and the Peabody Museum at Harvard. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 55 

37. Maxillary breadth; between the two zygomaxillary sutures, at 
their lowest external point (zm-zm). 

38. Greatest occipital breadth; the distance between the two asteria 
(ast-asfc). This measures the greatest breadth of the occipital bone 
along its lateral sutures, and corresponds to the measurement of the 
greatest frontal breadth (No. 6). SC. 

39. Frontal arc; the distance nasion-bregma, over the surface. TM. 

40. Parietal arc; the distance bregma-lambda, over the surface. TM. 

41. Occipital arc; the distance lambda- opisthion, over the surface. 
TM. 

These three last, 39, 40, and 41, added together, should equal the 
measure of the total cranial arc, No. 22. The exact points used for 
bregma and lambda may be marked by a pencil line, to insure the use of 
the same point for two consecutive arcs, or the judgment may be put 
to a severer test by measuring each arc by itself, without reference to 
the rest. In a well-marked skull it will be found that these measures, 
however taken, will correspond within a millimeter or two. 

42. Frontal chord; the distance nasion-bregma, in a straight line, as 
measured by the slide compass. SC. 

43. Parietal chord; the distance bregma-lambda, in a straight line, 
as measured by the slide compass. SC. 

44. Occipital chord; the distance lambda-opisthion, in a straight line, 
as measured by the slide compass. SC. 

These last three measures, 42, 43, and 44, may be also measured upon 
the diagraph tracing of the median sagittal curve, and if the two methods 
are correctly used, the two should correspond. Certain other distances, 
as basion-bregma, nasion-basion, etc., may be also measured upon the 
diagraph curve, and a comparison of the two methods will prove each 
other. Aside from a number of important angles, the craniogram 
furnishes much the best, or sometimes the only method of obtaining 
certain other important linear measurements, such as the calvarial 
height, the lambda calvarial height, and the bregma perpendicular. 
These will be considered below, under the subject of the median sagittal 
craniogram. 

45. Mandibular length; the distance between the anterior point of the 
mandible and the median point of a line drawn across the posterior 
surface of the two gonia. Place a knitting needle across the back of the 
gonia, and measure from the middle point of this to the anterior limit 
of the jaw, anterior surface, both in the median sagittal plane. 

MEASUREMENTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM THE MEDIAN SAGITTAL 

CRANIOGRAM 

Many of the above measurements of cranium and face may be taken 
upon the median profile curve of a skull, when drawn accurately by 



56 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

means of the diagraph. Of all craniograms, or tracings thus made, this 
one, the median sagittal, is by far the most important, and is so emphat- 
ically the craniogram par excellence, that it is the one always referred to 
when the word is used without modification, (cf. Fig. 26, p. 46). 

Quite aside from its use in furnishing another method of presenting 
the more usual lines, and thus corroborating the results of direct measure- 
ment, there are certain important internal lines, such as the calvarial 
height line, or the bregma position line, that are obtainable in no other 
way than by means of this craniogram. Especially, however, in the 
presentation of various angles, mainly internal ones, lies the chief useful- 
ness of this figure, where they need merely to be constructed by means 
of lines drawn between the proper points, and then read off with a 
transparent protractor. 

The most important data obtainable from such a craniogram may 
be presented here in three groups; corroborative measurements, linear 
measurements, and angles. 

1. Corroborative Measurements 

Any linear measurements that may also be taken directly on the 
skull will serve to test the accuracy of a craniogram, but the longer the 
line employed, so much greater is the visible error, and the severer the 
test. Thus the two best measurements for this purpose are the two 
greatest dimensions of the profile view, the maximum length and the 
basion-bragma height. In making this test a discrepancy of 1 mm. 
or so is not a serious one, as it may be accounted for in large part by the 
varying width of the pencil point, or a slightly oblique position of the 
median axis of the pencil. Such slight discrepancies should be corrected 
in the craniogram by erasing and redrawing portions of the curve, yet 
such corrections should not be attempted if they involve much more 
than the breadth of the pencil mark. 

In this enumeration, as everywhere throughout this book, measure- 
ments bear the same numbers as when first mentioned; all measurements 
taken from the foregoing list, therefore, will here have the former numbers, 
(between 1-45) while those first introduced here are furnished with 
numbers from that point on. This will make it easy to precisely desig- 
nate a given measurement anywhere in the text, and to readily look up 
its precise specifications in the list in which it is described in full. 

1. Total cranial length; the ruler is to be applied to the craniogram, 
holding the zero point on the most bulging point of the glabella. The 
point of maximum length can be readily found by slightly rotating the 
ruler about this anterior end, until the furthest distance is secured. 
This should naturally correspond to the same, obtained by the crani- 
; ometer from the skull, allowance being made for the width of the pencil 
mark at either end, 1 mm. or so for each. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 57 

4a. Basion-bregma height; this should correspond within about the 
same limits as the previous one. 

[The correspondence of these two lines, placed nearly at right angles 
to each other, in both craniogram and in the skull by direct measurement, 
will usually establish the practical correctness of the former. Where, 
however, the special accuracy of a particular region is desired, use may 
be made of other lines, such as the nasion-basion, or the basion-prosthion, 
if the discussion especially concerns the facial region; or in the chords 
and arcs involved, while investigating a profile contour.] 

2. Important Lines . 

The most of these may be taken also direct, and hence have already 
found a place upon the previous list. Many, however, serve here in the 
construction of some important angle; as a base for some special perpen- 
dicular; or otherwise in some special relation, which makes it convenient 
to designate them by other names. These new names are given here, 
but the lines themselves may be recognized by their numbers, which are 
the same as in the previous list. The old names also are added in 
parenthesis, (cf. Figs. 26, 27, 28). 

33. The calvarial base (nasion-inion line). This line serves as the 
base upon which the calvarial height line [48] is erected. 

9. Cranio-basal length (nasion-basion line). This line serves as the 
entire length of the basis cranii, from the anterior edge of the occipital 
foramen, forward to the anterior limits of the skull. Few people, even 
anatomists, realize to how great an extent the axis of the human skull 
has become shortened and bent together; bringing the occipital foramen 
almost in contact with the posterior nares, and placing it about in the 
center so that the heavy head, in the erect position of the body, is almost 
balanced upon the top of the vertebral column. 

10. Facial depth (prosthion basion line). 

34. Inferior facial depth (gnathion-basion line). As the gnathion 
properly lies underneath the jaw, where it serves as the limit for lines of 
measurement coming from the direction of the nasion, it is more natural 
to draw this, line, from the basion, not to the gnathion, but to the most 
anterior point of the jaw, which is about at the pogonion. It may be 
possible ultimately to remedy this inconvenience, even to the establish- 
ment of a new landmark, between pogonion and gnathion, but at present 
the gnathion is the point spscified, and one should be careful to use it, 
bringing the termination of the Inferior facial depth line, and that measur- 
ing the total facial length [11] to the same point. 

12. Superior facial length (nasion-prosthion line). [This line, taken 
with that of the superior facial length and the cranio-basal length, forms 
an important triangle, which is practically coincident with the nasal 
cavity. This may be found of importance in the future study of the 



58 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

proportions of this part; the most important angle will probably be found 
to be the one with apex at the basion (n-ba-pr), as it subtends the superior 
facial length.] 

11. Total facial length (nasion-gnathion line). 

46. Nasion-lambda line. This, although capable of direct measure- 
ment, is not used otherwise than in the craniogram, where is serves as 
the base for the lambda calvarial height [49], as the nasion-inion line 
serves for the calvarial height [48]. Of itself, this line and its measure- 
ment, has not been found of value. 

47. Basion-lambda line; the main importance of this line is its partici- 
pation in forming the great cranial quadrilateral, nasion-bregma-lambda- 
basion, described below. 

42. Frontal chord ( nasion-bregma) . 

43. Parietal chord (bregma-lambda). 

44. Occipital chord (lambda-opisthion). 

48. Calvarial height; the longest perpendicular that can be erected 
upon the nasion-inion line [33] within the medial contour curve of the 
cranium. * 

49. Lambda calvarial height; the length of the perpendicular erected 
upon the nasion-lambda line [46], precisely as in the case of the calvarial 
height [48]. 

50. Bregma position line; this is a perpendicular, dropped from the 
bregma upon the nasion-inion line, the point where it touches the latter 
designating the bregma position. This line differs from most in that 
it has litl le value in itself, but is used to determine an important point. 
This point may be made available for comparison by forming an index the 
numerator of which is the distance along the nasion-inion line from nasion 
to the bregma position point, and the denominator the entire nasion- 
inion line [index 36, below]. 

51. Frontal perpendicular; the longest perpendicular that can be 
erected upon the frontal chord, within the limits of the frontal arc. This 
line is important in itself, and also in its definition of the point where it 
touches the arc, and marks the apex of the frontal curvature angle. 

52. Parietal perpendicular; specifications and uses like that of the 
previous one, save that it concerns the parietal bone. 

53. Occipital perpendicular; specifications and uses like that of the 
two previous ones, save that it concerns the occipital bone. 

3. Other Possibilities of a Craniogram 

A craniogram, as a contour tracing, does not contemplate the locating 
of any point not included within this outer contour, like bregma, lambda, 

* The first calvarial height proposed used the glabella-inion, instead of the nasion- 
inion, for the base. This was by G. SCHWALBE, in his study of Pithecanthus erectus- 
cf. Zeitschr. Morphol. u. Anthropol. Bd. I. 1899, pp. 38+. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 59 

etc. It is quite possible, however, to find with the needle of the diagraph 
certain essential points upon the lateral surface, and thus to indicate 
1 hem also upon the craniogram. By thus locating porion and orbitale, for 
instance, the FH may be drawn in upon a craniogram, often a great 
advantage in getting relationships; while by drawing lines from these 
points to those upon the outer contour, certain unexpected new lines and 
angles may be formed, some of which may be found to be of much service. 
When a craniogram is made from a skull properly oriented within a cubic 
craniophore, a tracing of the frame of the craniophore, drawn about the 
craniogram, will serve to orient it, and, if either one of the points that are 
used in the determination of the FH be present, this important horizontal 
may be added. 

Measurement of the Cranial Capacity. This procedure, No. 24 of the 
prescriptions of 1906, is a very old one, and developed early in cranial 
investigation. It consists essentially in first filling the entire cranial 
cavity with some material consisting of small, dry, granules, and then 
measuring it accurately by pouring it out into a graduated glass cylinder. 
There are, however, many chances of error in this procedure, which have 
been so far as possible eliminated by various devices. 

In the first place the larger orifices of the skull, except the occipital 
foramen, which is left for filling and emptying, are plugged with cotton, 
taking care not to allow the cotton plugs to project into the interior. The 
material to be used in measuring is then poured in by means of a tin 
funnel, the skull being held with the occipital foramen uppermost. 
For filling material different investigators have employed sand, mustard 
seed, canary seed, peas, small shot (No. 8), glass beads and other things. 
Recently attempts have been made to use a liquid, water or mercury, in 
conjunction with a thin rubber bag, which expands as filled, and assumes 
the shape of the cranial cavity, and in the prescription of 1906 water is to 
be used "whenever possible." A liquid has the decided advantage of 
being non-compressible, and thus of occupying the same space in the 
measuring cylinder as in the skull, insuring an exactness of result not 
possible with the dry media, which can be compressed to a considerable 
extent. 

Naturally a dry medium has in practical application a decided ad- 
vantage over a liquid, and the chance of error through a different amouut 
of compression in skull and cylinder has been reduced to its lowest terms 
through an improved technique. Perhaps for general purposes some 
small seed is the best, and of the various possibilities millet-seed, as re- 
commended by Martin, is the best of all. This seed, not always easy 
to obtain in the United States, is lenticular, not spherical, and has a very 
smooth coat, and thus packs closely together, the individual seed 
slipping into place very easily. Mustard seed is also good, but the 
spherical seeds do not pack so completely, and the coat is not as smooth 
as millet. 



60 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

In filling, either the skull or the cylinder, the main point is, not to 
pack. There is a great temptation to do so, and the beginner will almost 
invariably press on the seed, through .the occipital foramen, with his 
finger, with the intention of completely filling the space. In all cases, 
however, the rule must be invariable, to let the medium fall naturally, 
the separate granules arranging themselves as they will, without forcing 
them to fit together more tightly than they do under the influence of 
gravitation. In the same way neither skull nor cylinder is to be shaken 
or thumped down upon the table, for such procedures tend to pack the 
medium more tightly together, and cannot well be administered in both 
skull and cylinder to the same degree. To insure a uniform fall of the 
medium into the cylinder a simple apparatus has been devised in the 
form of a large tin cup of about 2000 cm. capacity, and with a funnel- 
shaped bottom having a round hole, 2 cm. in diameter, precisely in the 
center. This hole may be opened or shut from the outside by means of 
a simple rod apparatus, which slides a flat cover to and from the hole. 
The cup receives the seed, or other medium, directly from the skull, 
poured from the occipital foramen, and is then placed upon the 2000 cm. 
glass cylinder, exactly centered with it and the whole apparatus placed 
upon a perfectly level table. The hole is then opened, and the seed pours 
down in a uniform column through the center of the cylinder, falling at 
the bottom in the center and distributing itself evenly upon all sides. 
When properly done the surface of the seed should present a slightly con- 
vex surface, which can be readily made level by the use of a flat disc 
of wood on the end of a rod, the disc being a little smaller in diameter 
than the inner dimensions of the cylinder itself. Even here care should 
be taken not to compress the seed, but to simply level the surface so 
that it can be more accurately read, which is done by a gentle patting, 
accompanied by a slight twisting of the rod. 

Unfortunately the same precision cannot be obtained in filling the skull, 
but a result similar to that obtained by the tin cup may be produced by 
dropping the medium through the occipital foramen through a tin fun- 
nel which is kept supplied with seed, and held up so that the stream of seed 
falls from a like distance. Towards the end, a slight use of either the 
finger, or a small wooden cylinder, is required, to fill the lateral spaces at 
the top, but no especial pressure is to be exerted, and the action is to be 
limited to about the same amount that is used in the cylinder in leveling 
the top. By thus employing merely the natural amount of packing inci- 
dent to the material used when falling naturally, and taking care not to 
exert pressure, the result should be uniform in skull and cylinder, and 
the latter should register the actual cranial capacity of the skull thus 
measured. 

As a check on the method, and a test as to whether the results are 
accurate or not, the method of using a "control skull "is advocated. This 
is either a real human skull of known capacity, or one made of bronze, 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 61 

glass, or some other hard material, the exact cubic contents of which is 
known. The control skull is measured every little while during the work, 
perhaps between every two or thiee skulls, and the result compared with 
the known capacity. A marked discrepancy shows that the work is 
not being done right, and will indicate whether the medium is too much 
or too little compressed. 

A natural skull is made into such a control by sawing off the skull-cap 
in the usual manner, and then treating the entire inner surface with some 
waterproofing mixture, plugging all the foramina, and finally cementing 
on the skull cap by the same material. This is then waterproof, and may 
be accurately measured by this medium, the result of which is definite and 
invariable. Then when thoroughly dried out it is ready for use. The 
exact capacity should be clearly marked upon the skull itself. It is to be 
marked that this result is not necessarily the original capacity of the skull, 
but that it is probably modified by the waterproofing cement. It is now 
simply a receptacle of known capacity and with the exact shape of the 
receptacles with which the anthropometrist is dealing, thus reproducing 
the exact conditions presented with the normal skulls. 

Finally, as mainly a convenience, in laboratories where there is much 
of this work going on, a special table should be provided, with a concave 
top, sloping downward towards the center, where there should be a small 
hole, communicating with a receptacle placed underneath, through which 
the extra grains of the medium, the constant spilling of which is inevitable 
could be collected and returned to the proper place. As a matter of con- 
venience the top of the table should be large enough to hold the utensils 
employed, and should be in close connection with a level portion, where 
the filling of the cylinder and similar work could take place. Each 
laboratory will easily work out the details of such a piece of furniture for 
itself. 

While the cranial capacity is an indication of the weight of the brain, 
the two are by no means the same. Even were the specific gravity of 
brain substance the same as that of water, there would be a discrepancy, 
for the cranial cavity contains, not only the brain, but the wrappings, 
and blood vessels which including the venous sinuses, present together 
a considerable volume, which if there were nothing else, would make 
the weight of the brain in grams considerably less than the cranial capacity 
in cubic centimeters. But, aside from this the specific gravity of brain 
substance is a little lighter than water, a circumstance which would still 
further decrease the number in the reduction of cubic centimeters to 
grams. 

Taking all things into consideration, including the fact that in heads of 
different size the proportions of brain weight to cranial capacity vary 
also, Welcker, in 1886, prepared the following table, which is perhaps, the 
best we have at present (Martin, p. 640). 



62 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

Where the cranial capacity is between 1200-1300, take for each 

With a cranial capacity of Take for each 100 cc. a brain weight of 

1200-1300 91 grams 

1300-1400 92 grams 

1400-1500 93 grams 

1500-1600 94 grams 

1600-1700 95 grams 

Bolk (1904) gave the following table of the percentage of brain weight 
to cranial capacity at the different ages of life. It will be noticed that 
this is the greatest at 50, after which, through senile changes, the weight 
of the brain decreases, while the cranial capacity naturally remains the 
same. 

Age, years Percentage of brain weight to cranial capacity 

30 73.7-94.0 

40 90.0-96.5 

50 90.0-95.2 

60 89.2-93.4 

70 88.1-93.8 

80 85.2-90.1 

90 84.1-88.4 
over 90 81.5 

Earlier Manouvrier, without considering the matter as to the age of 
life, gave, as a general average of the percentage of brain weight to cranial 
capacity, 87 %. No author has found any notable sexual difference. 

Indices 

Indices of Cranium and Face, with Classification of Values. The 

following list of Indices includes the most of those which have been found 
of value in craniological comparisons thus far. As they are merely a 
simple numerical method of expressing the relationship of definite parts 
and have been devised to express more precisely certain differences to 
which the attention of the observer has been called, it is to be expected 
that, with the inauguration of new comparisons, there will appear from 
time to time new indices to express them. Indices of the skull involving 
direct measurements, may be conveniently grouped as those of the 
Cranium, those of the Face, and those which express Comparisons be- 
tween the two. These are followed by those derived from the 
era niogram. 

I. INDICES OF THE CRANIUM 

maximum cranial breadth [2] X 100 
1. Length-breadth index - : r^-, 

maximum cranial length [1] 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 63 

Classification of Values 

ultradolichocranial* below 65 

hyperdolichocranial 65-70** 

dolichocranial 70-75 

mesocranial 75-80 

brachycranial 80-85 

hyperbrachycranial 85-90 

ultrabrachycranial ' 90+ 

[This index is available for the living, but the values of the separate 
classes are to be advanced one point. Thus, a brachycephalic 
head (living) runs, not from 80 to 85, but from 81 to 86, and so on]. 

2 Length height index basion - bre g ma hei S ht M X 10 

. J^tts f IU if I ft c I Url I/ I f frCtt/X . * i i 

maximum cranial length [1] 

chamaecranial below 70 

orthocranial 70-75 

hypsicranial 75 + 

This index is obviously not applicable to the living. 

r . -. , . , . , auriculajifcight [4c] X 100 

3. Length-auricular height index -. | ... A . r , , 

maximuj^Hpnial length [1J 



chamaecranial below 58 

orthocranial 58-63 

hypsicranial 63 + 

This index may be used on the living head, and with the same 
values. The terms to be used are chamaecephalic, orthocephalic, 
etc., as with No. 1. 

4. Breadth-height index basion-bregma height M X 100 

maximum cranial breadth [2] 

tapeinocranial below 92 

metriocranial 92-98 

acrocranial 98+ 

[The three indices 1, 2, and 4, comparing each pair of the three 
dimensions, length, breadth, height, together give the dimensions of 
a skull viewed as a rectangular box. The length-breadth index 
suggests the shape as seen from above (norma verticalis); the 

*As suggested by Martin, the suffix "cranial" is here employed to express the 
length-breadth index on the skull, and "cephalic" for the corresponding index on 
the living head. Thus, a head with an index of 78 is mesocephalic, while the same 
head, macerated and reduced to a skull, should have an index of 77 and be mesocranial. 

** To be precise the upper limit of each class extends up to the lower one of the 
next above, but does not reach it. Thus, the class beginning at 75 extends up to 
the one beginning at 80, but ends at 79.99 +. [It is, however, more convenient, and 
more easily remembered to write these limits as here (75-80, etc.) and no confusion 
need arise if the actual state of the case is well understood.] 



64 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

length-height, as seen from the side (norma lateralis); and the 
breadth-height, as seen from behind (norma occipitalis)]. 

calvarial height [48] X IOC 

5. Calvanal height index ; ~ ~ roo1 

nasion-inion line [33] 

The calvarial height is to be taken from the craniogram; the nasion- 
inion line from either the same or by direct measurement. 

nasion to foot of bregma perpendicular X 100 

6. Bregma position index -. ^-. =^r- 

nasion-imon line [33] 

[The lesser the index the farther forward the bregma, and conse- 
quently the higher the position of the frontal bone. The upper 
measurement is taken from the craniogram; the nasion-inion line 
from either the same or by direct measurement]. 

nasion-inion line [33] X 100 



7. Sagittal cranial curvature index 



8. Transverse cranial curvature index 



sagittal cranial arc [22] 
biauricular breadth [35] X 100 



transverse cranial arc [23] 

least frontal breadth [5] X 100 

9. Transverse fronto-panetal index - ; r-j-r -5., ro1 

maximum cranial breadth [3] 



stenometopic below 60 

metriometopic 66-69 

eurymetopic 69+ 

10. Indices showing the Relations of the Various Sagittal Arcs. 

parietal arc [40] X 100 

(a) Fronto-panetal index ^ -j ^^. 

frontal arc [39] 

/JA . ., 7 . , occipital arc [41] X 100 

(b) Fronto-occipital index - -~ r ^^. 

frontal arc [39] 

,. , . - occipital arc [41] X 100 

(c) Paneto-occipital index ^. , r-r^. 

parietal arc [40] 

. . frontal arc [39] X 100 

(d) Fronto-sagittal arc index - -. r ; ^^ 

total sagittal arc [22] 

parietal arc [40] X 100 

(e) Paneto-sagittal arc index f- , rr>01 

total sagittal arc [22] 

. , occipital arc [41] X 100 

(/) Occipito-saqittal arc index rr, rrtm 

total sagittal arc [22] 

11. Indices indicating the amount of curvature (bulging) of each of the 
three contour bones of the cranium. 

. . frontal chord [42] X 100 

(a) Frontal curvature index - : , F^J 

frontal arc [39] 

parietal chord [43] X 100 

(6) Parietal cunature index ^ -, TTTTJ 

parietal arc [40] 

occipital chord [44] X100 

(c) Occipital cunature index - . .. , f-pn 

occipital arc [41] 

12. 13. Indices of the separate portions of the frontal and occipital arcs. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 65 

The frontal and occipital arcs admit each of a separation into two 
parts, the proportions of which are of significance. The frontal arc is 
divided by the supraglabellare into a pars glabellaris and a pars cerebralis; 
the occipital is divided by the inion into an upper and a lower scale 
(squama). In each case the various measurements of arcs and chords 
may be compared by the use of indices and give details concerning the 
contour of the bones in question. Those which concern the forehead are 
of especial significance. 

12. Indices of the frontal curvature 

. chord of pars glabellaris [g - sg] X 100 
12 (a) Glabellar curvature index ,. r-^ 

arc ot pars glabellaris 

[This gives the amount of projection (bulging) of the supra- 
orbital region, and is especially useful in" comparing the 
Neandertal and other prehistoric types with the present species; 
also in the study of Australians, and other primitive races]. 

12M Cerebral curvature index ch rd f pafS cerebralis ^ ~ 6 1 X 10 

\U } l w /c/t'C//Ci6 t/M'/C'til'M'/t/ C'/C'tC'C/*!/ P 11* 

arc of pars cerebralis 

12() Glabello-cerebral index ch< "? ? &***> fr-* 1 X 100 

chord of pars cerebralis [sg b] 

13. Indices of the occipital curvature 

. , chord of upper scale [I i] X 100 
13(o) Upper scale cunature index - ^- j_ 

chord of lower scale [i o] X 100 
13(6) Lower scale curvature index- arc of lower scale 

13(c) Upper and lower scale index (chords) 

chord of lower scale [i o] X 100 
chord of upper scale [Z i] 

. arc of lower scale X 100 
13(d) Upper and lower scale index (arcs) arc of upper scale 

[The two last indices give the relative position of the inion.] 

14. Index of the occipital foramen 

breadth of foramen occipitale [216] X 100 
length of foramen occipitale [21a] 

[Like other indices, this gives the shape rather then the size. 
These indices may be classified as narrow, below 82; average, 
82-86; and broad, from 86 on.] 

II. INDICES OF THE FACE* 

_. i , , . 7 . nasion-gnathion line [11] X 100 

15. Total facial index rr - r ,. u ro1 

bizygomatic breadth [8] 

*Cf. Marie Sawalischin, in Archiv f. Anthropologie, Bd. 8, 1909., pp. 298-307. 

5 



66 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

hypereury-prosopic below 80 

euryprosopic 80-85 

mesoprosopic 85-90 

leptoprosopic 90-95 

hyperleptoprosopic 95+ 

[Various facial lengths, other than the one used here, have been 
employed by certain anthropometrists, such as the length from 
the ophryon, or the supra-orbitale, instead of the nasion. For 
the facial breadth, both here and in the next, Virchow used the 
zygomaxillare instead of the zygion, and made the breadth 
zm-zm, instead of zy-zy.] 

nasion-prosthion line [12] X 100 

16. Superior facial index - . . -. -, 

bizygomatic breadth [8] 

hypereuryene below 45 

euryene 45-50 

mesene 50-55 

leptene 55-60 

hyperleptene 60+ 

[The suffix "-ene," in the form -en, was first proposed by Martin 
in 1914 to distinguish between the adjectives used for the total face 
and the upper face. It is derived from an old Greek root, akin 
to the Sanskrit Ana-s, the mouth, and surviving only in a few 
adjectives, with the meaning of Face; yvcs, irpo<T-r)vr)s. Whether 
it is better thus to differentiate the two facial indices, or to use 
the same words, compounded with "-prosopic," stating care-" 
fully which index is meant, or relying upon the numerical dif- 
ferences of the two groups of indices, must be left for usage to 
decide.] 

. , zygomaxillary breadth [37] XI 00 

17. Zygomatico-malar (luqal) index - s -r~, ' L . ,., ro1 

bizygomatic breadth [8] 

least frontal breadth [5] X 100 

18. Zygomatico-frontal index ^ -. ; 

bizygomatic breadth [8] 

4 . ,., , . , bigonial breadth [26] X 100 

19. Zi/qomatico-mandibular index ?-. -. ; rn p?n 

bizygomatic breadth [8] 

anterior interorbital breadth [mf mf] X 100 



20. Interorbital index 



outer biorbital breadth [fmt fmt]3Q 



[For the measurement between the eyes the maxillofrontale is now 
generally chosen, that known as the anterior biorbital breadth. 
(Measurement No. 15, as modified.) This index is therefore 
sometimes designated the "Anterior interorbital index."] 

n h't ' J or bital height [at rt. angles to orb, breadth] X 100 

orbital breadth [16 modified] 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 67 

[The orbital breadth of the Monaco Agreement employs the 
dacryon instead of the maxillofrontale, but modern usage prefers 
the latter. The difference would be so very slight that it would 
not seem necessary to calculate two indices.] 
chamaeconch below 76 

mesoconch 76-85 

hypsiconch 85+ 

nasal breadth [14] X 100 

22. Nasal index - n , r ; 

nasal length [13, n ns\ 

leptorrhine below 47 

mesorrhine 47-51 

chamaerrhine 51-58 

hyperchamaerrhine 58+ 

[The nasal spine is to be located laterally (cf . nasospinale, under 
Landmarks; also the description of No. 13)]. 

maxillo-alveolar breadth [18] X 100 

23. Maxillo-alveolar index TH -, -, ; ,, M0 ,. n 

maxillo-alveolar length [18 bis] 

dolichuranic below 110 

mesuranic 110-115 

brachyuranic 115+ 

palatal breadth [196] X 100 

24. Palatal index ,, Mr .-j 

palatal length [19a] 

leptostaphyline below 80 

mesostaphyline 80-85 

brachystaphyline 85+ 

mandibular length. [46] X 100 



25. Mandibular index 

26. Ramus index 

27. Dental index 



bicondylar breadth [25] 
breadth of ramus [28a] X 100 



nasion-basion line [9] 
[The molar length is that of the two bicuspids plus the three 
molars of the upper jaw. The measure is taken from the anterior 
(mesial) side of the first bicuspid to the posterior (lateral) side 
of the third molar]. 

microdont below 42 

mesodont 42-44 

megadont 44+ 

III. INDICES SHOWING RELATIONS BETWEEN CRANIUM AND FACE 

basion-prosthion line [10] X 100 

28. Longitudinal cramo-facial index - ^ r-pi ., r ,i 

maximum cranial length [1] 

bizygomatic breadth [8] X 100 

29. Transverse cramo-facial index - r-r-r ,., rr>1 

maximum cranial breadth [2] 



68 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

nasion-prosthion line [12] X 100 
30. Vertical cramo-facial index ,. 

basion-bregma line [4a] 

IV. INDICES EMPLOYING THE LINES DERIVED FROM A MEDIAN SAGITTAL 

CRANIOGRAM 

Since certain lines and linear measurements, as stated above, may 
be taken either direct or by means of the median sagittal craniogram, 
necessitating their appearance in two places, so is also the case with 
the indices constructed from them; and, as in the former case, certain in- 
dices are here repeated, always with their old numbers. 

basion-bregma height [4a] X 100 

2. Length-height index : J , { . 

maximum cranial length [1] 

[For classification of the resulting indices, see above.] 

, , calvarial height [48] X 100 

5. Calvanal height index - : r- ? ^ roo1 

nasion-mion line [33] 

[The calvarial height is to be taken fiom the craniogram; the 
nasion-inion line from either the same source, or by direct 
measurement]. 

. , nasion to foot of bregma perpendicular X 100 

6. Breqma position index = . . .. 

nasion-inion line 

[As in the last two, the numerator is measured upon the cranio- 
gram; the denominator by either method. The lesser the value 
of the index the further forward the bregma position, and con- 
sequently the more erect the position of the frontal bone]. 

OD T .. ,. 7 . , . 7 . , basion-prosthion line [10] X 100 
28. Longitudinal cranio-facial index - r 4 - 

maximum cranial length [1] 

nasion-prosthion line [12] X 100 

30. Vertical cramo-facial index ; ^- ^ , . . 

basion-bregma height [4a] 

, , lambda calvarial height [49] X 100 

31. Lambda calvarial height index - = , , - ,'-. 

nasion-lambda line [46] 

[As in the last, both measures may be taken from the craniogram; 
or the nasion-lambda may be measmred direct]. 

00 r, . 7 ,. , . , frontal perpendicular [51] X 100 

32. Frontal perpendicular index - 

frontal chord [42] 

[The lower this index the flatter the forehead. This has nothing 
to do with the position of the contour line, i.e., whether 
the forehead is "high" or "retreating," but refers solely to the 
shape of the contour, however placed with reference to the entire 
skull]. 

, . 7 . , parietal perpendicular [52] X 100 

33. Parietal perpendicular index - . . , ; 

parietal chord [43] 

[A low index signifies a flat contour]. 

rk. .. i j. 7 . j occipital perpendicular [53] X 100 

34. Occipital perpendicular index - 

occipital chord [44] 

[A low index signifies a flat contour]. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 69 

V. INDICES OF WEIGHT AND CAPACITY 

[Various indices of weight and capacity have been employed, but 
comparisons can be made only in the case of skulls in about the 
same condition with respect to dryness, and where nothing of 
the bone substance has been lost through decay or weathering. 
The following are some of the most important, and are suggestive 
of further study along this line]. 

35. Calvario-cerebral weight index 

weight of skull, without mandible X 100 
cranial capacity 

[Here, as elsewhere when capacity is compared with weight, the 
weight must be in grams, the capacity in cubic centimeters] 

,,,.,, , . . ,, . , weight of mandible X 100 

36. Mandwulo-cereoral weight index 5 : = r 

cranial capacity 

[Here, and in all indices involving the weight of the mandible, as 
in the two below, the mandible is supposed to have a full com- 
plement of teeth. Some operators have a lot of odd teeth and 
find a corresponding tooth for each one gone, which is to be 
weighed with the jaw. Others add an average weight (1.25 g.) 
for each tooth missing]. 

weight of mandible X 100 



37. Calvario-mandibular weight index 

38. Femero-cranial weight index 



weight of skull alone 
weight of skull without mandible X 100 



weight of the two femora 

Angles 

Angles. The great majority of the cranial angles in use, either now 
or formerly, lie in the median sagittal plane. These, in the early practice, 
were rendered available for study by the drastic method of sawing the 
skull in two along the median plane, a practice which had the advantage 
of laying bare internal as well as external proportions, yet presented the 
disadvantages of rendering the specimen practically useless for many 
other data, especially breadth measures, involving points upon both 
moieties, and measured across the bisected skull. Prof. Huxley, however, 
at one time advocated this procedure so strongly that he declared that 
the time would come when it would be considered a disgrace for an anthro- 
pological collection to possess as much as a single skull that had not been 
thus treated. 

Fortunately for the science of anthropometry the introduction of the 
diagraph, with the possibility of obtaining an accurate profile tracing 
of the outer contour, without injury to the skull itself, has rendered 
available the study of all external curves and of angles involving only 
external parts, without recourse to bisection; while, by means of recently 



70 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

devised instruments, certain important internal landmarks may be 
reached and located through the occipital foramen without injuring the 
specimen. Furthermore, the development of various forms of goni- 
ometer, and the establishment of a fixed horizontal, and other means for 
a precise orientation, have introduced methods of measuring many of 
the most essential angles directly upon the skull. 

There is thus usually left to the operator in determining a given angle, 
a choice of several methods, but where a craniogram is available it will 
often be found very convenient and practical to draw the angles to be 
measured upon it, and then measure them on the paper by means of a 
transparent protractor. This procedure is so very available, in fact, 
that it offers a serious temptation to the investigator to try any angles 
that suggest themselves, with the hope that they may prove useful or 
even reveal some unexpected and significant relation that has escaped 
the eye. 

The following angles have either already been extensively used with 
success in showing important difference, or are believed to have some 
chance of success in the future. As some angular measurements are very 
old, older in fact than any linear measurements, the most of these have 
now become classical by use, and are of first importance. 

1. Metopic or frontal profile angle. This is the angle of inclination of 
the nasion-metopion line to the FH, and is best measured direct by the 
stationary goniometer. The metopion, the point in the median line 
crossed by the line connecting the two frontal eminences, is first ascer- 
tained as accurately as possible, and marked on the skull surface by a 
pencil. Then, with the skull oriented exactly on the FH, the two points 
of the goniometer are placed, the one on the nasion, the other on the 
metopion, and the angle read off in the usual way. 

The exact apex or center of the two frontal eminences is more easily 
ascertained by the finger, rubbed over the surface, than by the eye; or 
when, as in an espcically smooth forehead, even this method is insuf- 
ficient or uncertain, the point in the median line exactly one-third of the 
distance from nasion to bregma is taken as the metopion. GO. 

2. Frontal angle of Schwalbe. A somewhat more practical frontal 
profile, readily drawn and measured upon a craniogram, and serving 
the same purpose of the previous one, is that devised by G. Schwalbe 
and used first in his studies of Pithecanthropus erectus.* 

As first used this angle was formed by the glabella-inion line with 
one drawn upward from the glabella and tangent to the most projecting 
point in the frontal profile curve; but in his later use of this Schwalbe 
substituted nasion for glabella, and the angle now used is fr-n-i, fr being 
the indefinite free end of the frontal tangent. CG. 

3. Frontal inclination angle ( = "Bregma angle" of Schwalbe). This 
has the advantage over the previous angle in the accuracy of the points 

* Zeitschr. fur Morphol. und Anthropol. Bd. 1, 1899, p. 142. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 71 

involved, but does not measure quite the same thing, and cannot be sub- 
stituted for it. It measures the inclination of the frontal chord (the 
line nasion-bregma) to the nasion-inion line. Schwalbe, who first em- 
ployed it under the name of the Bregma angle, measured it upon a cranio- 
gram, but it may equally well be measured direct by first setting the 
skull upon the nasion-inion, instead of the FH, as a horizontal, and then 
measuring with the goniometer, one foot each upon nasion and bregma. 
CG or GO. 

4. Occipital inclination angle [= "Lambda angle" of Schwalbe]. 
The inclination of the lambda-inion to the nasion-inion line. This is 
best drawn upon the craniogram, as is done with the Frontal inclination 
angle, its counterpart at the other end of the nasion-inion. These 
two angles, which fix definitely the position of the frontal and occipital 
bones, respectively, were called by G. Schwalbe, who first proposed 
them, the " bregma" and "lambda" angles, evidently forgetting for the 
moment that ang'es are usually named from the point that forms their 
apex. He also used the glabella-inion, instead of nasion-inion, in accord- 
ance with the usage of the time.* 

As with the frontal inclination angle, this may also be measured upon 
a skull, set upon the FH, by means of the stationary goniometer, the two 
points of which rest upon lambda and inion. CG or GO. 

5. Facial profile angle [The modern equivalent of the facial angle of 
Camper 1- The inclination of the nasion-prosthion line to the FH. 
Use as prosthion the most projecting point of the alveolar border in the 
median line and measure with the stationary goniometer. In a skull with 
a seriously damaged alveolar border this angle cannot be taken. The 
angles have the following values: 

hypei prognathous below 7 

prognathous 70-80 

mesognathous 80-85 

orthognathous 85-93 

hyperorthognathous 93 + 

This angle gives the inclination of the line used in calculating the superior 
facial index (index No. 16) and as it includes the slant of the entire upper 
face, it is very important, especially as a racial criterion. It was about 
this angle, roughly estimated, and very imperfectly designated, that was 
used by Petrus Camper as his famous Facial Angle, which yielded such 
definite results as a racial criterion, and may be considered the beginning 
of the modern science of anthropometry. GO. 

6. Nasal profile angle. Similar to the last, -but with a shorter line 
subtending the angle, that of the nasal length, instead of the superior 

* For the frontal inclination angle cf. Zeitschr. fur Morphol. und Anthropol. 
Bd. I, 1899. p. 142. For the occipital inclination angle cf. Zeitschr. fur Morphol 
und Anthropol. Sonderheft, 1906. p. 20. 



72 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



facial. It is measured in an oriented skull with the stationary gonio- 
meter, the two points of the instrument resting on nasion and naso- 
spinale. This latter point is determined by drawing a line across the 
lower border of the nasal aperture, tangent to the two lateral curves at 
their lowest points, and taking the point in this line where it crosses the 
median line. This nasio-nasospinale line is nearly as long as the one 
used in the previous case (nasion-prosthion), so that in practice the same 




FIG. 27.- Diagram illustrating cranial angles, 
n-fr, plane used in measuring the metopic angle, 
fr-n-i, frontal angle of Schwalbe. 

b n i, frontal inclination angle (bregma angle of Schwalbe). 
1-i-n, occipital inclination angle (lambda angle of Schwalbe). 
n-ba-pr, superior facial length angle, 
n-ba-pr (as a triangle) , superior facial triangle, 
n-b-l-ba, cranial quadrilateral. 

classification has been used, with 'the same values; it has the obvious 
advantage of eliminating all uncertainty concerning the often poorly 
defined alveolar border, especially when it is brought forward because 
of projecting teeth (alveolar prognathism) , and thus exaggerates the 
prognathism of the skull as a whole. Should this angle be actually 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 73 

substituted for the previous one as the definite measure of the prog- 
nathism of a skull, it will probably be found advisable to reduce the 
values of the classes in the classification, to correspond with the re- 
duction in the size of the angles. GO. 

7. Alveolar profile angle. The inclination of the profile of the alveolar 
region, measured fromnasospinale to prosthion (its most projecting point) . 
This angle can be measured only on skulls with complete alveolar region 
in the median line, and is taken with the stationary goniometer upon an 
oriented skull, as in the two previous cases. This seems hardly a practical 
angle to use, although it is generally recommended, since it is too small 
an angle to take accurately, and since it is too easily affected by varying 
degrees of projection of the teeth, quite an individual peculiarity and not 
racial. GO. 

8. Profile angle of ihz nasal roof (the nasal bones). Inclination of the 
nasion-rhinion line, measured in the same way as the last, the two points 
of the goniometer resting upon the termini of the line in question. To be 
used only in skulls in which the nasal bones are complete. GO. 

9. Calvarial base angle. The inclination of the nasion-inion line ( = 
calvarial base) to the FH. This is readily measured with the stationary 
goniometer on a skull placed upon the FH in a cubic craniophore. The 
craniophore is placed so that the norma occipitalis is beneath, and the 
norma verticalis towards the instrument. The two points rest respec- 
tively upon nasion and inion, and the angle shown is the complement 
of the one sought. 

The knowledge of the usual values of this angle and of Schwalbe's 
frontal angle (2) will allow one to place a fragmentary cranium upon 
approximately its proper position, and save one from making such erro- 
neous conclusions concerning the set of the head and the slope of the 
forehead in life, as was most unfortunately done in the case of the sup- 
posed Diprothomo platensis of Ameghino. Fragmentary skulls, consist- 
ing of calvarium alone, and this often badly broken, are so frequently 
found that a knowledge of this angle, giving the usual relationship of the 
nasion-inion line, is extremely useful.* 

10. Inclination of the occipital foramen. This is naturally the inclina- 
tion which the plane placed across the foramen, and including both basion 
and opisthion, makes with the plane of the FH, i.e., a dihedral angle, but 
in a symmetrical skull it should have the same value as the angle made 

* For the studies of G. SCHWALBE concerning the proper orientation of a skull 
fragment, based upon the usual relations of the nasion-inion and glabella-lambda 
lines, cf. Zeitschrift fur Morphol und Anthropol. Sonderheft, 1906. Das Schadel- 
fragment von Brtix, and especially the diagram on p. 137, where the usual angle 
lambda-glabella-inion is given as 20, and the angle glabella-inion FH as 15. The 
author, like the rest of the world, was then using the glabella, instead of the nasion 
for all such data (e.g., the calvarial base), as is here the case. For the critical study 
of Diprothomo by the same author cf. Zeitschr. fur Morphol. und Anthropol., Bd. 
XIII, 1910-1911, pp. 209-258. 



74 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

by the line basion-opisthion and the median line of the FH, which is 
always the line meant in a craniogram involving this horizontal. 

As most forms of craniophore use the occipital foramen to fasten the 
clamp into which holds the skull, either basion or opisthion or both are 
not available, a special form of craniophore is devised which takes hold 
of the skull elsewhere. A thin strip of metal is then attached to both 
basion or opisthion by wax, plastilena, or some similar substance and the 
inclination of this strip taken with the goniometer. When the opisthion 
is higher than the basion the angle made with the FH opens backwards 
and is marked with a + sign ; when the basion is higher, the angle opens 
forwards, and is marked with a sign. 

11. Frontal curvature angle. 

12. Parietal curvature angle. 

13. Occipital curvature- angle. 

These angles, all constructed in the same way upon the craniogram, 
show with considerable precision the shape of the three contour bones of 
the cranium, as they appear in the median line. In each case the longest 
perpendicular is erected upon the chord of the bone in question (lines 
51, 52, and 53 above), and lines drawn from where this perpendicular 
comes in contact with the contour curve to each end of the chord. The 
angle thus formed is the angle sought. The greater the angle the flatter 
the bone. CG. 

14. Occipital flexional angle. This angle, which shows the amount of 
bend, or flexion of the two parts of the occipital scale, with apex at the 
inion, is drawn upon the craniogram, by the lines 1-i and i-o, and meas- 
ured by the protractor. CG. 

15. Superior facial length angle. The angle formed at the basion, 
by the lines nasion-basion and prosthion -basion (9 and 10), and subtend- 
ing the superior facial line. Drawn upon the craniogram, and measured 
by the protractor. CG. 

16. Facial length angle. Similar to the last, but using the line 
gnathion-basion (34), instead of prosthion-basion, and thus subtending 
the total, instead of the superior, facial length. Only to be done in 
skulls with a good mandible, which is set in the proper position, either 
by a spring or by plastilena, before making the craniogram. CG. 

Aside from angles, certain triangles or higher polygons are readily 
drawn upon a craniogram, or are constructed (like the triangle n-ba-pr) 
as a result of the preceding work. The various angles of these may be of 
some value, yet their further study falls dangerously near the empirical 
method above mentioned. However, there may be mentioned in this 
connection one triangle and one quadrilateral, whose position makes them 
more or less fundamental in describing the shape of a given skull. 

A. The Superior facial triangle (n-ba-pr). This follows and ap- 
proximately defines the nasal fossa, being bounded by the cranio-basal 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



75 



length line, and the lines of length and breadth of the superior face. 
Whether the angles which have their apices at n and pr are of especial 
value is not known, but the third angle, the apex of which is at ba, is 
already listed above, and serves to measure the length of the superior face. 
B. The Cranial quadrilateral (n-b-l-ba). This figure, more than any 
other, especially with the cranial base as one of its sides, serves to define 




i.int. 
' 



Fro. 28. Important angles shown on a sawn skull, illustrating an old method of study; 
based upon several drawings of Topinard. Certain well-known lines are given their earlier 
French nomenclature to facilitate the reading of French texts of the period of Broca and 
Topinard. 

n-sphen-ba, the Sphenoidal angle of Welcker. 

n-ba, the cranio-basal length, the "cranial base line." 

n-ba-pr, the facial triangle of Vogt. 

n-ba-a, the facial triangle of Welcker. 

The naso-basal angles of Vogt and Welcker, respectively, were used by these two men. 
Vogt used the angle n-ba-pr, and Welcker the angle n-ba-a. The two inions, external 
and internal, are incidentally shown in this figure. 



the profile of the entire cranium. Thus far it is not known to have been 
used, but from its appearance, embracing the entire cranial contour, it 



76 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

would seem to have some value, which future work may prove. Its 
angles at n and I subtend the basion-bregma height; the angles at 6 
and ba subtend the nasion-inion (Bi-B^). It is presented here merely 
as a suggestion. 

II. THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN, WITH THE 
RIBS AND STERNUM 

The Vertebral Column, with the Ribs and Sternum. One of the most 
frequently emphasized differences between man and the apes is that of 
the degree of forward curvature of the vertebral column in the lumbar 
region (lordosis) . This curve which, in its extreme form, is characteristic 
of the human back, is displayed to a much lesser degree in the Simiidae, 
and in the gibbons (Hylobates), the lowest of the family, is but slightly 
indicated. 

It is thus generally considered, and with much probability, that this 
lumbar curve has been gradual attainment in the evolution of man, and 
that, in all probability, the curve would be found to be less in the lower 
races, and thus serve as a racial criterion. 

The ideal and only complete method of studying this and the other 
curves of the vertebral column is by means of accurately made sagittal 
sections taken through frozen bodies, but owing to the obvious difficulties, 
this had been done in only a few cases, and includes only representatives 
of races of higher culture. Much can be done, however, by the study 
of the separate vertebrae, since the character of the curve is conditioned 
largely by the proportions of the bodies of the vertebrae involved. By 
measuring the antero-posterior thickness, of the lumbar centra in the 
median line, both dorsally and ventrally, and then comparing the two, 
it is found that these parts are wedge-shaped, the most anterior one 
slightly, increasing gradually to the fifth, in which this character is the 
most pronounced. It is to this that the lumbar curve is largely due, and 
thus the degree of curvature may be ascertained by obtaining the above 
measurements of the vertebral centra. 

As a sufficiently exact measurement is difficult or impossible, and as 
the differences between the dorsal and ventral measures of single vertebrae 
are but slight, Turner, who first proposed this method, obtained more 
accurate figures by adding together the measurements obtained from 
twelve individual spinal columns, and comparin r the sums.* Thus, the 
ventral measure of the 12 fourth lumbar vertebrae was 336 mm. while 
the dorsal measures of the same parts was only 313. In the 12 fifth lumbar 
vertebrae the corresponding numbers were 337 and 281, a more pro- 
nounced difference, since the ventral measures were practically identical, 

* TURNER, SIR WILLIAM: Report on the Human Crania and Other Bones of the 
Skeletons Collected During the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-76. 
Part li. The bones of the Skeleton, publ. in 1886 in the Reports of the Challenger 
Expedition, Zoology, Vol. XVI, pp. 1-136. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



77 



while there was a marked disparity in the dorsal one, indicating a more 
definite wedge for the fifth than for the fourth. To get the average 
difference for a single vertebra these figures are divided by 12, giving for 
the fourth lumbar vertebra the figures 28 : 26 mm., and for the fifth, 
28 : 23.4. 

The amount of curvature in a single spine can be indicated by taking 
the above measurements, adding together the five dorsal thicknesses, 
and comparing the sum with that obtained by adding the five ventral 
ones. The result can be best obtained in the form of a General lumbar 
index, thus : 

39. General lumbar index 

dorsal vertical diam. of lumb. vert. I V X 100 

ventral vertical diam. of lumb. vert. I V 
The values from this index may be classified as follows : 
* curtorhachic ( = convex spine) below 98 
orthorhachic ( = straight spine) 98-102 
coelorhachic (= hollow spine) 102+ 

The Special lumbar index for a single vertebra may be obtained in a 
similar way by dividing the dorsal by the ventral antero-ppsterior diame- 
ter (thickness), and the general index may be calculated from the five 
results by obtaining the mean, or average, of all five. 

40. Special lumbar index 

dorsal vert. diam. of vert. I, II, III, etc. X 100 
ventral vert. diam. of same vertebra 

The special index of a given vertebra in a number of cases may be 
averaged as is done in any other such data, and the results compared as 
racial criteria. Thus Turner presents the following table. 





12 Euro- 
peans 


5 Austra- 
lians 


2 Andama- 
nese 


3 Negroes 


3 Hawaiians 


1st lumb. vert 


106 8 


114 4 


111 3 


108 8 


114 6 


2d lumb. vert 


101.5 


112.3 


105.6 


104.2 


108 


3d lumb. vert 


95.4 


108.0 


102.0 


100.0 


108.2 


4th lumb. vert. . .' 


93.0 


103.7 


91.8 


93.0 


101.5 


5th lumb. vert 


83 6 


91.4 


84.2 


89.0 


87.7 














Mean general lumbar index 


96.0 


106.0 
(nearly) 


99.0 
(nearly) 


99.0 


104.0 



From this table there will be noted the marked change of shape of the 
vertebral bodies from the first to the fifth. In the first and second the 

*Gk. /&<ixts, a spine; Kvpr6s, arched, convex; 6p66s, straight; KofXos, hollow. Turn- 
er's spelling retained the Greek form, kurtorhachic, coitorhachic, as also in his com- 
pounds with -kerkic (cercic) below, but the spelling given here is more in accordance 
with modern usage. 



78 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



bodies are wedge-shaped, with the lesser thickness (the edge) pointing 
backwards (dorsally) ; the third is about .square, i.e., the anterior and 
posterior surfaces are nearly parallel, and in the negro absolutely so; 
while in the fourth and fifth the wedge is turned around, with the edge 
pointing forwards (ventrally). Cunningham,* who investigated a 
much larger number of European skeletons than did Turner (76) , found 
the index for the first lumbar vertebra to be 106.1, and for the fifth 81.6, 
with the general index, 95.8, practically the same as the latter author. 
For the negro he obtained a general index of 105.4, and for the Andama- 
nese 104.8, both considerably larger than the results of Turner. 

Studies of the vertebral column, calculated to bring out the wedge- 
shaped character of the vertebral bodies, and incidentally the curves, 
have been undertaken by Hasebe,f who has carried out the bulk of his 
work upon Japanese material, but has compared his results with the 
studies of others upon other races. Among his tables, which are both 
numerous and extensive, he includes such measures as the ventral and 
dorsal vertical measures of the vertebral bodies, the transverse and 
sagittal diameters of the same, with special studies of certain important 
vertebrae, as the atlas, the epistropheus, and the sacrum. 

The volumetric measures of the vertebral column, both as a whole, 
and in its separate groups, compared in various ways, have been employed 
by Wetzel, J in a study of the vertebral column of the native Australians. 
These volumes are obtained by means of water replacement. He finds 
the average volume, both of entire vertebral columns, and of separate 
vertebrae, in 8 Australians, 6 Europeans, and2 negroes, besides the same 
data for the vertebral column of an adult orang-utan, for comparison. 
The average volume of the entire column, including the sacrum, together 
with the maximum and minimum among the individual studies was 
found as follows : 

VOLUME OF THE ENTIRE VERTEBRAL COLTJMN, INCLUDING THE SACRUM 

(in cubic centimeters) 



Name of race 


Average 
volume 


Maximum 


Minimum 


Australians (8) .... 


521 


687 


450 


Europeans (6) . . 


774 


916 


631 


Negroes (2) 


873 


890 


857 


Orang-utan (1) 


546 


54 


3 











The average volume of single vertebrae is taken by measuring all of 
one group together and dividing by the number of the group; thus, the 

* The Lumbar Curve in Man and the Apes; Dublin, 1886. 

t Die Wirbelsaule der Japaner. Zeitschr. fur Morphol. und Anthropol. Bd. 
XV, 1912, pp. 259-380. 

t Die Wirbelsaule der Australier. Zeitschr. fur Morphol. und Anthropol., Bd. 
XII, 1909, pp. 313-340. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



79 



volume of the cervical vertebrae of a given skeleton is divided by 7, that 
of the thoracic vertebras by 12, and of the lumbar vertebrae by 5. This 
average number for a single vertebra of a given group is then averaged for 
all the individuals of a given race, with the following results : 

TABLE OF THE AVERAGE VOLUMES OF SINGLE VERTEBRA 
(in cubic centimeters) 



Name of race 


Average of a 
cervical 
vertebra 


Average of a 
thoracic 
vertebra 


Average of a 
lumbar 
vertebra 


All together, 
one of each 


Australians (8) 


7 4 


16 1 


33 7 


57 2 


Europeans (6) . 


10 4 


25.1 


45 6 


81 1 


Negroes (2) 


13 2 


27.9 


54.0 


95 1 


Orang-utan (1) 


11.5 


18.1 


34.7 


64 3 













The volume of the four separate groups (including the sacrum) as 
compared with the total volume of the entire column, is of interest. 
Here the total volume is taken as 1000, and the components are given 
as proportionate parts of it. In other words this table is constructed 
by means of the following Volumetric group index, No. 3. Total volume 
of vert, column X 100 Volumes of each group. 

TABLE OF PROPORTIONATE VOLUMES OF THE GROUPS OF VERTEBRA 
(the total volume = 1000) 





Cervical 


Thoracic 


Lumbar 


Sacrum 


Australian (male) (4) 
Australian (female) (4) 


103 
96 


378 
361 


319 
315 


200 
233 


European (male) (5) 


96 


397 


295 


213 


European (female) (1) .... 


85 


339 


299 


278 


Negro (male) (2) 


106 


385 


309 


201 













In the above table the separation of the sexes shows certain interesting 
sexual differences, notably that of the volume of the sacrum, which is 
the greater in the female. This peculiarity is better brought out in the 
next table, which compares the volume of the sacrum with that of all the 
rest of the column, the total volume being considered as 1000, as in the 
other case. 

TABLE SHOWING THE RELATIVE VOLUME OF SACRUM AS COMPARED WITH THE PRE- 

SACRAL VERTEBRAL COLUMN 
(The first figure is that of the sacrum) 

Australian (male) 200 : 800 

Australian (female) 235 : 772 

European (male) 213 : 787 

European (female) 278 : 723 

Negro (male) 201 : 800 



80 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

Very little has as yet been done with the anthropometry of the ribs and 
sternum. The curvature of the ribs, connected as it is with the capacity 
of the chest and the relative lung capacity, is in part an individual char- 
acter, but is undoubtedly in part also racial. This character has been 
studied thus far mainly in the living by means of thoracic measurements. 
A comparison of the ribs and sternum of such prehistoric human species 
as Homo neandertalensis, with the same parts of modern man should 
show us along what lines to look for racial differences in the bones them- 
selves, and in this connection it is interesting to note that the ribs of 
this early species were less rounded in curvature than in modern man, 
indicating a cylindrical, rather than a flat, chest. This man was rather 
short in stature (1550-1650 mm.), with an enormously large head set 
well forward upon a short, massive neck. The thorax was cylindrical 
and very capacious, and the intercostal muscles were extremely well- 
developed. The ribs were themselves rather cylindrical than flat, giving 
a distinct triangular cross-section.* 

III. SHOULDER-GIRDLE 

Scapula 

I. LINEAR MEASUREMENTS 

1 . Maximum length (morphologically the breadth f) [CD] ; the distance 
between the most projecting points of the anterior (superior) and poste- 
rior (inferior) angles. 

2. Maximum breadth (morphologically the lengthf) [BK]; from the 
middle of the lower border of the articular surface of the glenoid fossa to 
the terminus of the spinal axis [No. 3] upon the vertebral border. 

3. Spinal axis [BA]; from the center of the glenoid fossa to the point 
where the prolonged lower edge of the spine intersects the vertebral 
border. 

4. Length of the spine [BE]; from the last described point [B], to the 
most distant point upon the acromion process. 

5. Length of the supra-spinous line [BC]; from the point [B] to the 
anterior angle. 

*BOULE: L'homme fossile de la Chapelleaux-Saints; Annales de Paleontologie, T. 
VI, 1911; pp. 113-115. 

SCHWALBE, G. : Kritische Besprechung von Boule's Werk; L'homme fossile, etc., 
mit eigenen Untersuchungen. Zeitschr. ftir Morphol. und Anthropol., Bd. XVI, 
1914; p. 565+. 

t The scapula of man, and to a lesser degree that of the other Primates, is spread 
out antero-posteriorly far in excess of that of most other mammals, mainly because 
of the excessive lengthening in this direction of the infra-spinous portion of the blade. 
If comparison be made with other scapulae, e.g., cat, horse, rat, which show the more 
usual shape it is at once apparent that the length runs in the same direction as the 
spine, and the breadth at right angles to it, across both fossae. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



81 



6. Length of the infra-spinous line [BD]; from the point [B] to the pos- 
terior angle. 

7. Antero-posterior (vertical) diameter of the glenoid fossa; taken across 
the lip, parallel to the axis of the body. 




\ 

G 

FIG. 29. Right scapula, showing measurements and angles. 
Spinal axis angle, AHD (1) 
Infraspinous angle, ABD (2) 
Vertebral border angle ABG (3) 
Axillo-spinal angle, BKD (4) 

8. Dorso-ventral (transverse) diameter of the glenoid fossa; measured in 
the same way, but at right angles to the preceding. 



82 



9. Length of axillary border [KD]; distance between the middle of the 
lower border of the glenoid fossa, and the posterior angle. 



1. Scapular index [2 : 1] 



II. INDICES 

maximum breadth X 100 



2. Supra-spinous index [5:1] 

3. Infra-spinous index [6:1] 



maximum length 
length; supra-spinous line X 100 



maximum length 
length; infra-spinous line X 100 



4. Axillary index [9:1] 

5. Fossorial index [5 : 6] 



maximum length 
axillary length X 100 

maximum length 
length; supra-spinous line X 100 



length; infra-spinous line 

~ 7 -j . j ro >n transverse diameter, clenoid fossa X 100 

6. Glenoid index [8 : 7] ,. , ,. . rr-= 

vertical diameter, glenoid fossa 

III. ANGLES 

1. Spinal axis angle [AHD]; made by the intersection of the spinal 
axis with the maximum length line. 

2. Infra-spinous angle [ABD]; made by the intersection of the infra- 
spinous line (prolonged) and the spinal axis. 

3. Vertebral border angle [ABG]; the angle between a line drawn tan- 
gent to the vertebral border and the spinal axis. 

4. Axillo-spinal angle [BKD]; the angle made by the line of the axil- 
lary border length and the line of maximum breadth, meeting at the 
point [K] in the diagram. 

The measurement of all of these angles can be best effected by the use 
of knitting needles, fastened directly upon the bone by wax or plastillna, 
and thus defining the lines. The angles are read off by a transparent 
protractor. 

IV. TABLE OP SCAPULAR MEASUREMENTS* 



Character 


Maori (1) 


Europ. 
(200) 


French 
(73) 


Austral. 
(6) 


Senoi 


Egyptian 


r 


l 


r 


1 


Max. length 


145.0 
95.0 
59.0 
109.0 
65.5 

54.1 


142.0 
95.0 
55.0 
106.0 
66.9 

51.9 


155.0 
101.4 

113.6 
62.5 


168.0 
105.9 

124.3 


154.5 
97.3 

113.6 
63.0 
64.9 


152.0 
97.0 

103.0 

72.5 


137 
87 

95 


98.0 
110.0 
65.9 


Max. breadth .... 
Supra-spin 


Infra-spin 


Scap. index 


Foss. index 







* The above results are those of various authors, as found in MOLLISON (1908) and 
MARTIN (1914. pp. 977-978). The Europeans were studied by FLOWER and GARSON 
(1880), the French by LrvoN (1879), and the Australians by TURNER (1886,. As 
elsewhere, the numbers of individuals studied in each case are given in parenthesis 
following the name of the race. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES . 83 
Clavicle 

I. MEASUREMENTS 

1. Maximum length;* taken with the osteometric board. 

2. Girth; taken at the middle of the shaft. 

3. The two angles of curvature; These are taken upon the dioptograph 
tracing of the contour of the bone from above, oriented as this is done by 
having the two borders of the acromial third in the same plane, hori- 
zontally placed. 

The middle axis of the bone is traced, following the curves, and 
beginning and ending in the center of the two ends; the points where 
the line attains the farthest point anteriorly and posteriorly are then 




FIG. 30. Right clavicle, from above, showing measurements. This figure is based 
upon several by Parsons, and represents the average measurements obtained from 
70 English males. 

marked, and lines drawn, connecting these with the middle of the two 
ends and with each other. These form a medial angle, projecting forward 
and a lateral, projecting backward. These can be measured with a 
protractor. Added together they form the "index of curvature. " These 
may be directly compared. 

4. Breadths, taken from the dioptograph tracing; Parsons uses five 
of these; at the two ends, at the inner angle, at the narrowest place, and 
at the conoid tubercle. 

* PARSONS: Engl. Journ. Anat., 1917, found the average length of English clavicles, 
taken from the lower and lower middle classes to be: 

males, right (70) 151 mm. 

males, left (83) 153 

females, right (65) 138 

females, left (64) 138 

The above were separate clavicles, taken at random; when the two clavicles of the 
same individual are taken in the cadaver, and compared with the total shoulder- 
vridth (not bi-acromial) PARSONS found, in 50 male bodies, the length of the right 
clavicle to average .382 of the shoulder-width, and that of the left, .387. In 49 female 
bodies the respective figures were .380 and .383, thus showing more definitely the 
greater length of the left clavicles in both sexes. 



84 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

II. INDICES 

1. Caliber index (2 : 1] Diddle circumference of shaft X '100 

maximum length 

2. Claiicle-humeral index [1 : 1 of humerus] 

maximum length of clavicle X 100 
maximum length of humerus 

ARM AND HAND 
Humerus 

I. MEASUREMENTS 

1. Greatest maximum length [AB, Fig. 31]; taken with the osteometric 
board. 

2. Breadth of the proximal epiphysis [AC] ; taken from head to greater 
tuberosity, so as to get the greatest measurement. Use the slide compass 
of the rod compass. 

3. Breadth of the distal epiphysis [BE]; measured between the two 
condyles, to get the greatest measurement. On about the same plane 
as No. 2. 

4. Circumference of the diaphysis at the upper third; this is preferred 
to that taken in the middle of the shaft, as it avoids the deltoid eminence. 

5. Least circumference of the diaphysis; this is found at about the 
second third, distal to the deltoid eminence, and just proximal to 
the beginning of the supra-condyloid ridges. It is usually about a 
centimeter distal to the nutrient foramen. 

6. Proximo-distal (longitudinal) diameter of the head; taken from a 
point in the edge of the articular surface of the bone across to the opposite 
side, taken in a plane parallel to the long axis of the bone. SC. 

7. Dorso-ventral (transverse} diameter of the head; taken in the same 
way, but at right angles to the previous one, and at right angles to the 
long axis of the bone. 

8. Circumference of the head; measured around the margin of the 
articular surface, with the tape. 

II. INDICES 

least circumference of diaphysis X 100 

1. Caliber index [5 : 1] -. , f^ 

maximum length 

, . -. transverse diam. of head X 100 

2. Index of the head [7: 6] rr r . i p 

longitudinal diam. ol head 

III. ANGLES 

1. Angle of torsion; the angle formed by the line connecting the 
cener fo the head and the greater tuberosity, when projected upon the 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 85 




PIG. 31. 'Right humerus, showing the cubital angle. 



86 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



line connecting the two condyles; i.e., the axis of the head and the axis 
of the condoles (Fig. 32). This is taken by means of the parallelograph. 
2. Cubital angle; the angle formed by the axis of the shaft with that 
of the trochlea. This is taken by standing the bone upon the table, 
the trochlear surface in contact with it. The angle to be measured is 
that of the bone with the table. This angle, taken in connection with 
that formed by the olecranon and shaft of the ulna, (joint axis angle, 



Swiss 




143.9 



FIG. 32. Contours of the two ends of a humerus superposed upon each other in bones 
from two different races, to show amount and angle of torsion. (After Martin.) 

see below, under Ulna), determines the degree of obliquity of the fore arm 
upon the upper arm in life, the "elbow angle" which is usually so much 
more pronounced in females than in males as to constitute almost a 
secondary sex character.* 

The anthropological study of the humerus is as yet too new either to 
estimate the relative value of the data given, or to formulate definite 
results from them. A few suggestions may be permitted, based upon the 

* MARTIN found the average value of the cubital angle in Fuegian humeri to be 
83, and that of the Swiss, 77. Other authors have established an average of 70 
for the white race. For the discussion of the elbow angle, see below, under Ulna. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 87 

humerus of Homo neandertalensis, and other extinct forms, as well as 
from the study of this bone in other Primates, suggestions which show 
the tendencies i.e., the lines along which the human specialization is 
moving. Thus, contrary to expectation, the humerus in the modern 
type is distinctly longer than in the Neandertal species, that of the 
right humerus of the latter being but 312 mm. long, although the cranium 
was very large. It is, however, extremely robust, although, from the 
few fragments extant, the hand was rather small and delicate. The 
shape of the head of the humerus is peculiar, being broader than long, 
that is, measurement No. 7 exceeds that of No. 6, and the Index (No. 2) 
is more than 100, a condition that does not exist in modern man, so far 
as is known. The direction taken by the head, as shown by the angle 
of torsion, is more towards the back than in the European race, resembling 
that of Australians and other lower races. The value of the angle of 
torsion in various other mammals, and in several human races, is as 
follows:*. 

Carnivora 85. 1 

Hvlobates 68.0 

Simia 59.75 

Pan 52.0 

Australians 45 . 5 

Gorilla 39.0 

Negroes, Fuegians, Polynesians 36.0 

*Neandertal (right) 35.0 

Chinese. 33 . 13 

Neolithic French 27 . 68 

Ancient Parisians 24 . 6 

Swiss 19.0 

Modern French 16.0 

Among the characters classed as variations two have especially at- 
tracted the attention of ethnologists; the perforation of the olecranal 
fossa, and the supra-condyloid notch. The first is the result of unusually 
deep coronoid and olecranal fossae, opposite each other upon the two 
sides of the bone, immediately over the trochlea. This occurs in some 
45% of Western Europeans, but is more common in African negroes 
(21.7 %), and in Polynesians (34.3 %), and is still more frequent in, 
American Indians (36.2 %). It seems to have been more common still 
in prehistoric peoples. 

The second character is clearly a remnant of the supra-cond3^1oid 
foramen of lower mammals, and, when well-developed, as occasionally 

* In taking the angle of torsion some authors use one of the two complementary 
angles, and some the other. It is thus often necessary to reduce all to a common 
form by subtracting from 180. This was done in this table, which is taken from 
data given by BROCA, MARTIN, and DUCKWORTH. 



88 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

in modern man, consists of a hook-like process upon the internal condylar 
ridge projecting distally, and converted into a complete foramen in the 
recent state by a ligament. It transmits the Median nerve, and fre- 
quently also the Brachial artery, or a branch arising from it, as in the 
case of the complete foramen of certain other mammals. In the humeri 
of the Spy and Neandertal skeletons there appears a groove (Sulcus 
supracondyloidsus, Klaatsch), evidently the vestige of the foramen in a 
slightly different form. 

Ulna 

The treatment of this and the following bone (Radius) is based largely 
upon the excellent model set by the paper of Fischer,* which differs in its 
arrangement from the more usual one. Instead of listing first the meas- 
urements, then the indices, and then the angles, he treats of a side, aspect, 
or end, with all its data together, a method which is here followed. The 
numbers thus follow consecutively, without placing angles, indices, etc., 
in separately numbered lists. 

I. LENGTHS AND CALIBER 

1. Maximum length; measured either upon the osteometric board, 
or by means of calipers. This measurement includes, naturally the ex- 
treme points of the olecranon and the styloid process, which, in the case 
of measurement by the calipers, become the points upon which the feet 
of the instrument rest, the termini of the maximum length line. 

The longest ulna measured by Turner, that of a male Hindu, was 305 
mm.; Fischer's longest, out of several hundred, was 296. In the Sikh, 
a very large race, Turner's maximum was 297, in the Malay 265, and in 
the Chinese 247. In negroes the maximum ulna was 301. The females of 
all these show considerably lower maximum figures, as would be expected. 

2. Physiological length; measured with the calipers, the two measuring 
points, or termini, being (1) the deepest point in the longitudinal ridge 
running across the floor of the greater sigmoid notch, and (2) the deepest 
point of the distal surface of the "head," not taking the groove between 
it and the styloid process. 

Although the maximum length line has long been used as the main, or 
the only, length measurement, there are many reasons for preferring the 
"physiological" or effective length; more in fact than in the radius, where 
it is also recommended. This length is that included between the articu- 
lar surfaces, and is to be preferred, not only because it avoids the neces- 
sity of using the points of the olecranon and styloid processes, which are 
often incompletley preserved, but also because it corresponds to the effec- 
tive working length of the forearm, as measured upon the volar side. 

* FISCHER, EUGEN: Die Variationen an Radius und Ulna des Menschen. Zeitschr. 
fur Morphol. und Anthropol. Bd. IX. 1906, pp. 147-247. 5 Pis., 16 text-figures, 
and 6 tables. (This paper is fundamental for the anthropological study of Ulna and 
Radius.) 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 89 

The following averages of this measure are given by Fischer: 

Prehistoric Teutons (Reihengraber) 239. 7* 

Negroes (6) 239.5 

Africans in general (12) 234 . 6 

Australians (6) 233.7 

Melanesians (17;* 230. 5 

Germans (Baden) (25) 227.2 

Ainu (60) f 212.5 

Japanese (40) f 200.4 

Compared with these figures the species H. neandertalensis shows 
nothing distinctive, but comes quite within the limits of recent man. 
The Neandertal ulna (right) measures 231 mm., physiological length, 
and those of Spy are estimated by Fischer at about the same figure 
(Spy I, Right; 233; Spy II, Left, 231). The orang, with its phenome- 
nally long arm, shows a physiological length of 340.5. In the gorilla it is 
303.21 in the chimpanzee 269, and in the gibbon, the smallest of the 
Simiidse in body, it reaches 282.2, a larger actual measurement than 
in any normal man. 

3. Least circumference of the diaphysis; located a little above the dis- 
tal epiphysis, where the shaft, through the reduction of the muscular 
ridges and crests, becomes nearly cylindrical. Measured with the tape. 

_ N least circumference (3) X 100 

4. Caliber index; (3:2)=- r ^r = n \v. /o\ 

physiological length (2) 

By this index is expressed the relative delicacy or robustness of the 
bone as a whole, the larger the number the stouter the bone. The fol- 
lowing table expresses in figures facts that have been frequently stated 
from observation; among others that the ulna of primitive people is more 
slender than that of the culture races. The extreme slenderness of this 
bone in the gibbon and oran'g is also manifest. 

Caliber Indices of the Ulna 

Simian apes 

Gibbon (4) 6.0 

Orang (8) 10.0 

Gorilla (5) 13.4 

Chimpanzee (2) 14 . 3 

Primitive human races 

Australians (6) 12.7 

Melanesians (13) 13.7 

Negritoes (6) 14.6 

Culture races 

South Germans, Baden (25) 16.8 

* The prehistoric Teutons, measured by LEHMANN-NITSCHE, and the last two, 
measured by KOGANEI, may not correspond exactly in the mode of measurement with 
the rest,' which were calculated by FISCHER. 

t In these the two sexes were used indiscriminately, in the others the bones 
were those of males alone as far as could be determined. 



90 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

II. STUDY OP LATERAL PROJECTION; CURVATURE OF THE SHAFT 

A convenient plane, to be used in projections and in general compari- 
son, is one established by Fischer, and conveniently called the sagittal, 
or dorso-volar, although in the natural position of the forearm, with the 
palm up wards and the radius and ulna parallel, it is set some what obliquely 
and is not perpendicular to the "volar plane," used in the study of the 
radius. 

This plane is determined by the curved ridge that runs longitudinally 
across the greater sigmoid notch, from the volar point of the olecranon 
to the projecting point in the lip of the coronoid process. The plane of 
this curve also passes approximately through the styloid process at the 
distal end, and the bone may thus be conveniently adjusted for projection 
by placing both the curved line and the styloid process at equal distances 
from the plane of the paper. Using this plane the bone may be inspected 
from the two opposite aspects, the one displaying the lesser sigmoid notch 
the other not. For the outline of the entire bone either aspect is, of 
course, equally serviceable, but as the features of the lesser notch are 
used in some of the measurements, the side that shows it is to be preferred. 

5. Curvature index. A comparison of several bones, or of their pro- 
jections, in the plane just denned, shows a striking difference in the shape 
of the bone as a whole, due mainly to a variation in the amount of curva- 
ture in the shaft. This may be measured upon a projection from the 
lesser sigmoid aspect by the method indicated in Figure 33. A median 
longitudinal line is first drawn through the proximal end of the bone to 
serve as an axis, and this crossed by a perpendicular tangent to the lower 
(distal) border of the articular surface of the lesser sigmoid notch. This 
locates the point a, where this cross line intersects the outer marginal line. 
A line is now dropped from the point a towards the distal end of the bone, 
tangent to the slight inward curve that is always found in the outline just 
above the distal epiphysis. The exact point of tangency is the point b, 
and the line ab is the chord of the outer outline, the curve to be measured. 
When this has been done the amount of curvature is ascertained by 
measuring the longest perpendicular to the chord that can be erected within 
the limits of the curve, and this length is expressed in terms of the entire 

-,,,,, . f T longest perpendicular X 100. 

chord by means of the following formula; - , -r ~ r , . E, 

length of chord AE 

The result is the curvature index, the greater curve giving the larger 
number. 

6 and 1. Height of olecranal cap, and olecranal cap index. A second 
measurement obtainable from this lateral projection is that of the height 
of the olecranal cap (No. 6), the amount of projection of the olecranon 
process above the upper lip of the greater sigmoid notch. The wide 
differences that are possible in this respect are seen at once by comparing 
any human ulna, in which the projection is slight, with the ulna of almost 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 91 




FIG. 33. Outlines of five ulnas, human and anthropoid, showing varying degrees of 
shaft-curvature. Further explanation in the text. After Fischer.) 

I. South German (Baden) 
II. Australian 

III. New Mecklenburg (female) 

IV. Chimpanzee 
V. Gibbon 



92 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

any quadruped, such as a cat or a rabbit. In various human ulnae 
there are considerable differences, the measurement of which may be 
made by first establishing upon the projection the longitudinal axis of 
the proximal end of the bone, and crossing this with a perpendicular, 
tangent to the upper lip of the greater sigmoid notch. The height of the 
olecranon above this is the measurement sought (n in Fig. 33) . 

The olecranal cap index (No. 7) may be obtained by comparing this 
measure with that of the physiological length of the entire bone; as 
follows: 

j fa n\ height of olecranal cap (6) X 100 

7. Olecranal cap index (6:2) = - r =-^ = ri .v /o\ 

physiological length (2) 

In modern men this index varies individually between 0.6 and 3.7, 
the larger figures occurring in the more primitive human races, although 
with some notable exceptions. In H. neandertalensis the cap is high, but 
in the Simian apes it is low. On the other hand the lower monkeys in 
general have a much higher cap than is found in any human races, some 
of them approaching the quadrupeds in this particular. The table of 
olecranal cap indices follows: 

H. papiens: 

South Sea islanders (6) 1.2 

Melanesians (13) 1.7 

South Germans, Baden (25) 1.7 

Australians (6) 1.8 

Africans (8) 1.9 

Negritoes (6; 2.0 

Fuegians 2.5 

H. neandertalensis: 

Neandertal 4.6 

Spy II; right 4.0 

Spy 11; left 3.8 

Simian apes: 

Gorilla (4) 0.8 

Gibbon (4) 1.0 

Orang (9; 1.1 

Chimpanzee (2) 1.4 

Lower apes (23), miscellaneous 6.4 

Lemurs 8.3 

8. Olecrano-coronoid angle. This character, also brought out by the 
lateral projection, is the position or tilt of the greater sigmoid notch, 
taken as a whole, as compared with the long axis of the bone. This can 
be readily expressed by the value of the angle formed between the chord 
ab, previously defined, and the prolongation of the line drawn across 
the points of the upper and lower lips of the notch. If, as is sometimes 
the case, the two lines are parallel, the angle is naturally O, and the notch 
faces straight outwards; when, however, the notch has an upward tilt, the 
two lines intersect above and form an angle which becomes greater the 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 93 

more the opening of the notch is elevated (Fig. 33, I and II). Should 
this look downwards the intersection would be below and the angle would 
be given a minus value. 

On an average, in modern races, this angle has a value of 15-20; 
but an angle of 32 has been recorded. The value of this angle which, 
from the two points involved, is termed the olecrano-coronoid, is directly 
concerned in the question of the angle formed at the elbow during the 
extension of the arm, since a complete extension to 180 is more easily 
possible, other things being equal, when the olecrano-coronoid angle is 
large, that is, when the notch is directed upwards. This possibility of 
complete extension is, however, dependent upon other factors also, for 
example, the depth of the olecranon fossa, or a slight forward cant of the 
olecranon process as a whole ; so that an unusually deep fossa, or perhaps 
a perforation of the bone (supra-trochlear foramen), may compensate 
for a moderately low position of the greater sigmoid notch, and still 
render a complete extension possible. When, however, the angle is very 
small, and the notch has little or no upward direction, a complete exten- 
sion, even with these compensations, is quite impossible. This is the 
condition in Homo neandertalensis so far as known; the olecrano-coronoid 
angle is low, and the extension of the arm is incomplete, the bones, when 
articulated, forming an angle of 160-165 when fully extended, so that, in 
the flesh, allowing for the space taken up by the soft parts, the amount of 
extension must have been even less. 

In the lower monkeys the olecrano-coronoid angle is very low, in some 
cases even negative (notch pointed downwards) and it would seem that 
here also a complete extension is impossible. Many human races, on 
the other hand, both high and low, such as the Central Europeans and 
the Australians, possess a high angle, and presumably have the power 
of complete extension. Definite statements on this point cannot be 
made from lack of sufficient data, and more detailed study, not only upon 
the bones but more especially upon the living, including all races and both 
sexes, are a pressing need. 

III. STUDY OF THE VOLAR PROJECTION 

This projection is that of the bone when rotated about its longitudinal 
axis exactly 90 from its former position, showing the curved longitudinal 
ridge that crosses the greater sigmoid notch as a straight line. As the 
former position was not strictly lateral, though called so for convenience, 
so this position is not quite volar, but in the normal position of an ex- 
tended arm is set at nearly 45 to the "volar plane" of the radius, de- 
scribed in the next section. Like the aspect previously used, however, 
it best shows certain essential peculiarities and has the advantage of being 
consistent with it. 

From this aspect the entire shaft is seen to possess a very slight S- 
curve, but it is difficult to measure, and thus far has yielded no important 



94 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



result. Of much greater significance is the angle expressing the relation 
of the plane of motion of the elbow joint to the longitudinal axis of the 
shaft, which can be ascertained with some accuracy from such a pro- 
jection, the joint axis angle. 

9. Joint-axis angle. To determine this first draw upon a given volar 
projection the line AE (Fig. 34), coincident with the curved longitudinal 





II 



FIG. 34. Ulna of I, White (So. German), and II, Negro, to compare the joint-axis angle 

in the two. (After Fischer) . 

ridge of the greater sigmoid notch, which is used in determining the lateral 
plane. This marks the plane along which the forearm moves in flexion 
and extension. Next draw a perpendicular across this at any convenient 
place with the limits of the notch, as CD, and this line, which is perpen- 
dicular to the plane of rotation, must necessarily be parallel to the axis 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



95 



of the joint. If, now, the axis of the shaft be drawn, EF, intersecting 
the line CD at E, the angle formed, CEF, is that between the joint axis 
and that of the ulna, or of the forearm, the joint axis angle. 

10. Lateral divergence angle. This angle, which is that made between 
ulna and humerus during extension, might equally well be placed under 
either bone, since it involves both to an equal degree Under the more 
common name of the "Elbow angle" its more extreme case, in which the 
two parts, upper and lower arm are set obliquely to each other in the 
living, this angle has been frequently noted and extensively commented 
upon. The true relation of these two parts is naturally a matter of the 
bones concerned, and is due to the two angles, cubital (Humerus III, 2) 




FIG. 35. Lateral divergence angle of elbow joint. (After Fisher.) 

I South German (Baden) 
II Negro 

III Australian 

IV Australian 

and joint-axis (Ulna, 9), which may vary quite independently of each 
other The four possibilities are presented in Fig. 35, taken from Fischer. 
In the first case both cubital and joint axis angle are considerably less 
than 90, i.e., the axes are both obliquely set, the result being a pro- 
nounced divergence of the forearm from the line of the humerus; in 
II, where the cubital angle is oblique, and the joint axis nearly straight 
(the angle even more than 90), and in II, where the reverse is true, and 
the cubital angle is straight (88), there is a moderate amount of lateral 
divergence. In IV each angle is practically a right angle, one compen- 
sating exactly with the other, (88 and 92), and the result is a perfectly 



96 LABOEATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

straight arm. It is thus seen that the lateral divergence angle (elbow 
angle of some authors) is always the sum of the two angles, cubital 
angle of the humerus and joint-axis angle of the ulna. That of 1 equals 
154; of II, 175; of III, 168, and of IV, 180.* 

IV. PROPORTIONS OF THE OLECRANON 

Certain of these, relative to the olecranal cap (Nos. 6 and 7) have 
already received treatment. There remain now the more usual dimen- 
sions of length, breadth, and thickness (or depth), with the customary 
indices to express the relations between them. These are here tabulated, 
although their value or significance have not yet been proven. 

11. Maximum breadth of olecranon; measured with the sliding com- 
pass at right angles to the olecrano-coronoid ridge used to define the 
sagittal plane. 

12. Height of olecranon; measured from the transverse line, groove, or 
roughness, which runs partly across the concavity of the notch from 
the outer side, separating the articular surfaces of olecranon and coronoid 
process, up to the highest point of the olecranon, i.e. the top of the olec- 
ranal cap. 

13. Thickness (or depth) of olecranon; measured with the sliding 
compass from volar to dorsal aspects. This is taken across the lip above 
the notch. 

14. Thickness-breadth index of olecranon (13 : 11) 

_ thickness of olecranon X 100 
breadth of olecranon 

15. Height-breadth index of olecranon (12 : 11) 

height of olecranon X 100 



These last two indices have yielded the following values: 
H. sapiens: 

Thickness-breadth (14) 

Height-breadth (15) 

Negroes (11; 92 83 

Weddas (3, 96 85 

South Germans, Baden (25) 98 80 

Australians (6) 98 80 

- Melanesians (18) 104 88 

Negritoes (6) '. 107 90 

Fuegians (6) 107 85 

H. primigenius : 

Neandertal 97 86 

Spyl 92 83 

Spy II 100 86 

* For special studies of the elbow angle see NAGEL: Untersuchungen uber den 
Armwinkel des Menschen. Zeitschr. Morphol. u. Anthropol., Bd. 10, 1906-07, and 
MALL: On the angle of the elbow, Amer. Journ. Anat., Vol. 4, 1905, pp. 391-404. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 97 

Simian apes: 

Gibbon (4) 88 75 

Orang (11) 95 81 

Gorilla (5) 101 77 

Chimpanzee (2) 120 73 

Lower apes 165 153.9 

Lemurs 120 138 

V. SHAPE OF THE SHAFT 

Through the formation of longitudinal ridges the shaft of the ulna 
becomes more or less definitely a three sided prism, one edge of which, the 
one turned towards the radius, forms a sharp crest, often considerably 
developed. Aside from these there are many minor elevations and slight 
depressions, which have their meaning for the anatomist in relation to the 
attachment of muscles, but in which thus far no racial characters have 
been established, and it is more probable that the variations are mainly 
those of age, sex, and degree of muscular development. 

Two methods have been devised, however, for determining the shape of 
the shaft at different levels, the one mechanical, the other mathematical. 
The first consists of surrounding the shaft at a given level with a band of 
wax, which, when removed, gives the exact form of the part enclosed. 
For this a mixture of wax and paraffin, 4 : 1, is warmed to the degree 
necessary to make it plastic, worked a little between the fingers, and then 
pressed around the region selected in the form of a band. The upper 
and lower margins of this band are then made straight by means of a 
knife, and the whole is then plunged into cold water to harden. When 
sufficiently hard the ring is cut across at two opposite points and the two 
halves are removed quickly from the bone and dropped upon a table or 
board without being handled. They are then placed together and fast- 
ened by means of a hot spatula applied to the outer surfaces. In this way 
may be obtained the outlines of any section, but the two points of greatest 
interest are (1) the point of greatest crest development, and (2) the cylin- 
drical region above the distal epiphysis, where the ridges fail and the cali- 
ber is the minimum. 

The second method is the more usual one of obtaining an index from 
two diameters taken at the same level and at right angles to each other. 
For this the point of greatest crest development is recommended, a point 
at about the upper third of the bone. Fischer uses for the two diameters 
the dorso-volar, from the ridge on the dorsal side to the flat plane on the 
ventral, and the transverse, exactly at right angles to the first. His 
index is formed by dividing the first by the second, or, in other words, by 
considering the transverse diameter = 100. Since in most ulnae the 
shape of a cross-section at this place is triangular, there are obvious 
difficulties in establishing two diameters at right angles to each other, 
while a measurement that includes the crest would give, not the primary 
shape of the bone, but the degree of development of the crest itself, that 



98 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

is, the degree of muscularity of the indivdual, and not the fundamental 
shape of the shaft. Since, however, nothing better has as yet been 
devised, and since these measurements have been actually used by Fischer, 
they are added here. 

16. Dorso-ventral diameter of shaft at the upper third; taken as suggested 
above. 

17. Transverse diameter of shaft at the upper third; taken as suggested 
above, and exactly at right angles to the previous measurement. 

~ . . dorso-ventral diameter [16] X 100 

JLo. (^aLioer inaex T~* ] ri -, 

transverse diameter [17] 

In this index the higher figures signify an approach to the cylindrical, 
a perfect cylinder being 100, while a lower index suggests a flattening 
of the shaft transversely. In Fischer's results the average index for 
South Germans is 76, for Fuegians, 86; and for Australians, 90. The 
ulnae of Neandertal and La Naulette gave each an index of 100. 

i 

Radius 

I. LENGTH MEASUREMENTS 

1. Greatest maximum length; taken either with the osteometric board 
or with the calipers, using as termini (1) the highest point of the margin 
of the capitellum, and (2) the point of the styloid process. The maximum 
length of normal radii was found by Fischer to lie between 190 and 288 
mm., the shortest average being found among the Negritoes and pre- 
historic pygmies from the Swiss lake-dwellings, and the longest among 
African negroes. Turner's longest radius, that of a negro, measured 
287 mm., his longest Sikh radius was 267, longest Malay 250, and longest 
Chinese 227. 

2. Physiological length; measured with the calipers from the deepest 
point in the bottom of the fovea capitelli (the articular surface which 
receives the capitellum of the humerus) to the deepest point in the semi- 
lunar facet at the distal end. Here, as elsewhere, the physiological 
length is the effective length for use, and is generally to be preferred, 
since it is that of the lengths of the parts in the living, thus enabling one 
to compare directly the figures in the living and in the bones. Thus 
here, the distance from the bottom of the external dimple or depression, 
so conspicuous an object in the dorso-lateral side of the living arm to the 
point of the styloid process, accurately located in the wrist, is the same 
as the physiological, rather than the anatomical, length of the bone. 
From the practical standpoint, in measuring a collection of bones, the 
physiological length is more generally applicable, since it does not 
depend upon the integrity of the styloid process, which is so often more 
or less deficient. 

The greatest average physiological length of the radius thus far 
recorded is that of the prehistoric Teutons from the "Reihengraber," 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 99 

for which the average of 25 separate radii is 237.3 mm.* Next follows 
the negro races, with an average of 235 to 238. Among other races 
are the following averages; although they rest upon too few single cases 
to be final: Australians, 227.3; Melanesians, 226.4; Polynesians, 210.3; 
Japanese, 200; Negritoes, 194.7. The physiological length of the 
Neandertal right radius is 225. 

The Simian apes, with their notably long forearm, naturally show 
longer absolute figures than does even the largest man. Thus, for the 
gorilla we have 302.4; for the chimpanzee, 266; for the orang-utan 334.3; 
and for the gibbon, in spite of its small size, 257.8. 

Several of the older anthropometrists, notably Turner, used a com- 
parison of the lengths of humerus and radius to form a Radio-humeral 
index, in which the length of the humerus was taken as the standard 
(= 100), and the (anatomical) length of the radius compared with it. 
This evidently grew out of the still earlier observation on the relative 
lengths of the forearm and upper arm, which formed the starting point 
of the anthropometry of the limbs, as given in the Introduction. This 
may be recorded here. 

max. length of radius X 100 



3. Humero-radial index; 



max. length of humerus 



II. SHAPE AND PROPORTIONS OF SHAFT 

4. Least circumference of the distal half. Most usually that circum- 
ference of a long bone which is selected for comparison with the length 
in estimating its proportionate caliber is the least one that can be found, 
which, in the case of most bones, is a fairly definite point. In the radius, 
however, there are three small places. (1) The "neck," between capitel- 
lum and bicipital tuberosity, (2) a point a little below this latter, and 
(3) a point just beyond the middle of the shaft, towards its distal end. 
In some bones one of these, and in others another, may prove to be the 
least circumference, so that, in order to be uniform, one must be desig- 
nated as the one to use. The best for many reasons, and in more than 
half the cases the actually smallest place, is the last named, which may 
be definitely designated as the point to be measured. As in all circum- 
ferences the measure is taken by means of the tape. 

, , . _, least circumference (4) X 100 

5. Caliber index (4:2) = - r = = = n -, , . 

physiological length (2) 

This index expresses the degree of slenderness of the bone as a whole, 
the less the figure the more slender the bone. The following table 
shows that in general the radius is especially slender in the lower Primates, 
stouter in the Simian apes, and in the lower human races, and in the 
culture races the stoutest of all. The orang and gibbon, however, with 

* LEHMANN-NITSCHE : Untersuchungen iiber die langen Knochen der siidbayer. 
Reihengraberbevolkerung. Beitr. zur Anthropol. und Urgeschichte Bayerns. 
Bd. 9, Munchen, 1895. This is also excellent for the other long bones of the skeleton. 



100 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

their extremely long and attenuated forearms, are an exception to the 
general law, and belong in this respect with the lemurs. 

Caliber indices of radius. 

Gibbon (4) 8.1 

Orang (10) 12.8 

Lemur (5) 13.3 

Melanesians (18) 15.7 

Lower monkeys (20) 16.2 

Burmese (8) 16.3 

Negritoes (6) 17.0 

Gorilla (5) 17. 1 

Germans, Baden (25) 18.1 

Japanese (3) 20.2 

The radius of H. neandertalensis contrary to expectation, is less 
slender than in the lower races of the recent species, the index being 
about like that of the culture races. 

For the two following data, and for some others, one or more definite 
planes must be determined in which the bone may be placed and from 
which it may be viewed. The most obvious of these is the volar plane, 
or approximately that of the two forearm bones when the arm is stretched 
out in a supine position, with the palm up, a position which brings the 
radius and ulna parallel to each othei. This plane is determined by a 
line and a point. The line, which is the maximum length line of the 
distal articular surface, extends from the apex of the styloid process to the 
middle of the concave edge of the incisura for the reception of the ulna. 
The point, which is placed at the opposite end of the bone, is the center of 
the depression in the capitellum, the fovea capitelli, the point used in 
the determination of the physiological length. 

To place a given radius so that its volar plane lies parallel to the 
surface of the drawing- table, that is, in a position for drawing a volar 
projection, the line and point must be placed at the same distance above 
the table surface. The dorso-ventral, or sagittal plane, lies at exact right 
angles to this, and is obtained by first placing the bone in the volar plane 
and then rotating it about its longitudinal axis 90. With these planes 
determined the two following measurements may be easily taken, 
either upon the bone itself, or upon a dioptograph outline. 

6. Transverse diameter of the Shaft. This should be taken at the point 
of the greatest development of the crest, a point indicated not only to the 
eye, but to the finger, being designated by a certain roughness of edge 
that corresponds anatomically to the insertion of a specially strong band 
of fibers forming a part of the interosseous ligament. The diameter 
lies in the volar plane. 

7. Sagittal diameter of the Shaft. This must be at the same level as 
the last, but in the sagittal plane, 90 from the last. 

sagittal diameter (7) X 100 



8. Diaphyseal index (7:6) = 



transverse diameter (6) 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 101 

This index is of rather questionable value, and gives little more than an 
indication of the degree of development of the interosseous crest, which 
can be noted almost as well by the eye. Where the crest is large the 
transverse diameter is considerably in excess of the sagittal, and the shape 
of the cross section at this place is somewhat triangular; where there is 
little or no crest, on the other hand, the diameters are nearly equal, and 
the cross section approximates a circle. In the first case the index is 
a low number (72-75) ; in the second it is higher, reaching in the Simian 
apes to above 80. Here also the figures for Homo neandertalensis are 
unexpected, and resemble those of recent men, evidently because of 
their high crests. As in the case of the ulna the study of cross section 
outlines, both at this place and at others, is of more value than this 
index. Such outlines are prepared by the method described by the 
use of girdles of wax (cf. ulna). If these bands be filled with plaster 
of Paris little disc-shaped pieces are obtained, which represent actual 
cross sections which are very convenient for comparison. 

III. STUDY OF THE VOLAH PROJECTION 

Several striking differences in general form are brought out by com- 
paring several radii placed in the volar plane, or, what is the same thing, 
by comparing a series of volar projections (Fig. 36). The two most 
important points are the collo-diaphyseal angle and the amount of curva- 
ture of the shaft as a whole. 

9. Collo-diaphyseal angle. This is obtained in the projection by 
marking upon it the axes of the two parts in question; (1) of the head and 
neck, by a line connecting the center of the head, through the middle of 
the shaft as far as the tuberosity, and (2) of the next ensuing portion 
of the shaft. The angle thus formed may then be measured by means of 
the transparent protractor. If one is dealing with an actual bone 
instead of a projection, the bone must first be properly oriented, and 
then the two axes marked by means of fine knitting-needles, attached 
to the bone surface by wax or plastilena. The angle is then read as 
before. 

Where there is no bend between the two parts considered, the head- 
neck axis, and that of the ensuing portion form a continuous straight 
line, and the angle = 180 (Fig. 36, I). This has been found in South 
Germans, although the average is 171.6. A slight bending reduces the 
angle, which thus becomes less the greater the amount of bending ex- 
hibited. The average angle for Australians is 165.4, and of Fuegians, 
160.4, showing a progressively greater amount of bending in these races 
as compared with Europeans. The Neandertal race, at 166, shows an 
amount of bending comparable with that of the lower modern peoples, 
and the bending in the higher apes varies from 165 to 159. 

10. Curvature index. The amount of curvature of the whole shaft 
may be expressed, in a way, similar to that used for the ulna, by fixing a 



102 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



definite tangent line along the convex side of the curve, and constructing 
upon it the longest perpendicular. To fix the line, which is tangent 




FIG. 36. Outline of four right radii, human, prehistoric, and anthropoid, showing the 
collo-diaphyseal angle. Further explanation in text. (After Fischer.) 

I. South German (Baden). 
II. New Mecklenburg. 

III. Neandertal. 

IV. Gorilla. 

to the inner curves, and not the outer ones, a perpendicular to the first 
of [the axes used in the previous measure, that of the head and neck, 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 103 

which marks the point a, on the margin (Fig. 36). The point 6 is the 
deepest point of reentrance of the distal curve seen on this outline, as 
shown also in Fig. 36. Now, connect by a line points a and b and we 
have the tangent sought. Finally, upon this as a base erect the longest 
possible perpendicular to the outer line of the margin, and the proportion 
of this to the entire tangent ab will indicate the amount of curvature; 
, height of greatest perpen. X 100 

length of tangent chord ab 

This index is always a small one, varying from 2 in modern culture 
races to over 6 in the strongly curved radii of the Neandertal species. 
Where the curve is large, it indicates a broad interosseous space, which 
in turn suggests a large suiface for the origin of the finger flexors, and an 
ability to cling very tenaciously to such an object as a tree limb. In 
this connection the large amount of curve in the Neandertals is significant. 

TABLE OF SHAFT CURVATURE INDICES, AVERAGES 

Higher apes 

Gorilla 5.7 

Orang-utan 5.1 

Chimpanzee 4.3 

Gibbon 3.6 

Homo neandertalensis 

Neandertal specimen 5.2 

Spy 1 6.5 (approx.) 

Spy II 5.2 (approx.) 

Homo sapiens 

South Germans 3.2 

Melanesians 3.0 

Burmese 2.7 

Fuegians 2.5 

IV. STUDY OF THE SAGITTAL PROJECTION 

In turning the bone around to a position 90 from the volar plane, 
it comes into the sagittal plane. Here but one important character 
has thus far been observed, and that is, a second collo-diaphysial angle, 
which marks the amount of backward projection of the proximal end of 
the bone. This can be measured by the same methods as are used for 
the collo-diaphysial angle of the volar plane (No. 9), and has been found 
to average 172.5 in the people of Oceanica and 175.0 among the South 
Germans, in both cases a greater bend than in the volar diaphysial angle. 
This angle may prove to be important, but thus far it has not been used 
very much, and need not be listed. 

V. THE TORSION OF THE SHAFT 

If in number of radii the maximum length line of the distal articular 
surface be plainly marked, that is, the line used above in determining 
the volar plane, and the bones be then placed in a parallel row upon a 



104 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

table, with the bicipital tuberosity looking straight upwards, there will 
be seen considerable difference in the angle which this distal line makes 
with the plane of the table. In other words the angle made between this 
line and one at the proximal end driven straight down through the tuber- 
osity is subject to much variation. This angle is called, 

11. Angle of torsion. It is measured by the parallelograph, which 
places on a piece of paper placed on the table a projection of the two 
lines involved, in the case of a bone held in a clamp and placed perpen- 
dicularly over the table. The angle is then determined by the transparent 
protractor. 

Viewed in another way this measurement defines precisely the direct- 
ion towards which the tuberosity points when the bone is placed in the 
volar plane. If in this position the tuberosity points directly upwards, 
its axis is at right angles to that of the distal articular surface line and the 
angle is 90; if it point laterally, along the crest, its axis lies in the volar 
plane and the angle is 0. This is about the condition in the large apes, 
and in the Neandertal species of man; indeed, occasionally in an ape 
(apparently always in the chimpanzee) the tuberosity axis passes the 
line, that is, the volar plane, and actually faces a little backwards, making 
a minus angle. In the white race in general the angle is somewhere 
around 45, and consequently looks obliquely forwards and inwards. 

The following results of the study of this angle have been found by 
Fischer, who, however, uses the complement of the angle as described 
here, considering the position in which the tuberosity looks directly up- 
wards as 0, and that in which it lies in the volar plane as 90. The table 
here, in order to agree with the textual explanation has been translated 
into the complements of Fischer's table. 

TABLE SHOWING THE ANGLE OF TORSION 

Simian apes 

Chimpanzee 3.5 

Gibbon +0.5 

Gorilla 2.0 

Orang-utan 5.8 

Homo neandertalensis 

Neandertal specimen 2.0 

Spy -. 9.0 

Homo sapiens 

Hawaiians 23 . 

Melanesians 24 . 7 

Australians 26 . 3 

Negroes 26.7 

Fuegians 29 . 5 

Burmese 31.6 

Veddah 37 . 

Negritoes 37.5 

South Germans (Baden) 39.8 

Lake-dweller pygmies (prehist) 49 . 2 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 105 

Although in averages this character is sufficiently striking, yet there 
are very large individual differences. Fischer found, for instance, among 
six negro radii, extremes of 39 and 85; and among twenty-five South 
Germans, those of 22 and 67. 

The Bones of the Hand 

Of all parts of the human skeleton it is safe to say that the bones of 
the hand and foot are anthropometrically the least known, and that in 
spite of the fact that, as always among highly differentiated parts, it is 
to be expected that they would reveal important racial differences*. 
The reason for this lack is mainly to be found in the paucity of available 
material. Few anthropological collections contain complete sets of 
hand and foot bones. In the case of those obtained from dealers, either 
attached to skeletons, or obtained separately, there is no guarantee that 
all the bones of a set came from a single individual and are not "com- 
posites," put together from several sources, and hence valueless for 
anthropometry. Again, it is very seldom that in an excavated skeleton 
these small and fragile parts are found complete, or even approximately so, 
since the lightness and smallness of the most of these parts allow them 
to become scattered by the action of worms and insects, and by various 
other sources. 

To remedy this great defect, and supply material for his own univer- 
sity, Dr. Wilhelm Pfitzner of the University of Strassburg macerated and 
prepared with his own hands a collection of nearly 2000 human hands 
and about the same number of feet, not daring to entrust to a trade 
preparator any portion of the work.f Thus this place, and this alone 
thus far, possesses a priceless collection of just the material needed for 
anthropometric examination of hand and foot skeletons, but even here 
the collection is derived wholly from the local Alsatian population, repre- 
senting but a small part of Europe. Adachi, in Tokyo, has been able 
to collect valuable data concerning the Japanese, but by the study of far 
fewer individuals, and when Uhlbach recently studied anthropometrically 
the hands and feet of Hottentots, he was obliged to content himself 
with these parts from only six individuals, and had it not been for the 
painstaking excavations by his friend and teacher, Fischer, he could not 
have gotten even these. 

Granting, however, that material is not lacking, a distinct problem 
presents itself in the fact of the multiplicity of single bones which together 
make up the unit whose proportions are especially to be studied. That is, 

* GEO. S. HTJNTINGTON, in a lecture delivered before the Galton Society, New 
York, Dec., 1918 (unpublished). 

t PFITZNER, W.: Beitrage zur Kenntniss des menschlichen Extremitatenskelets. 
VIII. Die morphologischen Elements des menschl. Handskelets. Zeitschr. /. Mor- 
phol und Anthropol, Bd. II. 1900, pp. 77-157 and 365-678. There are other im- 
portant papers upon the subject by this author, but this, the last of the series, has an 
excellent bibliography, and will serve to direct the reader to the subject in general. 



106 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

except in the bones of carpus and tarsus, whose proportions, taken a 
bone at a time, are frequently found significant, the points of comparison 
are found in the dimensions of the palm as a whole, or the relative lengths 
of entire fingers, while little or nothing is to be expected from single bones. 
It is thus frequently necessary to use as data the total lengths and breadths 
of several bones together, in which work the exact identity of every 
phalanx is of the utmost importance. 

For convenience of treatment the proportions of the hand as a whole, 
or without the carpus, and those of the separate carpals, are here treated 
separately, and in the order mentioned. 

I. THE PROPORTIONS OF THE HAND (WITHOUT THE CARPUS) 

This part consists of the 14 phalanges, together with the 5 meta- 
carpals, 19 bones in all; their measurements, used either separately or 
in combination, consist of lengths, breadths, and depths (dorso-ventrally) . 

1 . Lengths. There are two possible lengths of phalanx or a metacarpal ; 
the anatomical or maximum length, and the physiological. The first 
includes all processes or ridges which may be found prolonging the articu- 
lations, and this length is taken either by the anthropometric board or by 
a slide compass with flat points. 

The ordinary type of osteometric board is too large and heavy for all 
except the metacai pals' or the basal phalanges, and for this sort of work 
a much smaller size should be constructed, delicate enough to measure 
accurately, at least to half-millimeters, a bone the size of a terminal 
phalanx. 

The physiological length, or that length which is actually effective 
when the articulations are closed together as in life, is that found by 
measuring the length from the center of the depression of the articular 
surface at one end by that of the other. This seems, and probably is, 
the best one to use in calculations requiring the length of an entire finger, 
since, when put together in the natural manner, the length contributed 
by each piece would be its physiological, and not its maximum length. 

2. Breadths. The usual practice in ascertaining the breadth of a 
given phalanx, with its difference in caliber, and hence of breadth, at 
various points, is to measure the exact breadth at three places, across 
the two epiphyses and the middle, and average all three by adding them 
together and dividing by 3. 

3. Depths (Heights). This measure, taken dorso-ventrally through a 
phalanx, at right angles to the previous one, is usually taken in the same 
way as the last, by the average of three measures, taken in the same 
places as the last. 

4. Calibers. The caliber of the separate phalanges is a set of measures 
that will become important in the future without much doubt, but has 
not been employed thus far, probably owing to the technical difficulty of 
making a sufficiently accurate measurement to be of much discriminative 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



107 



value. To use this measure more delicate methods than any we have at 
present must be devised. 

As an example of data which may be derived in this way we present 
here the average lengths of the separate components of the middle finger 
(digit III) in Europeans, Japanese, and Hottentots, after the measure- 
ments of Pfitzner, Adachi, and Uhlbach respectively.* 



MEASUREMENTS OF DIGIT III (PHYSIOLOGICAL LENGTHS) 



bone 


Europeans 


Japanese 


Hottentots 


male 


female 


male 


female 


metacarpal 


62.8 
43.4 
28.5 
18.6 
90.5 
143.9 


59.8 
41.2 
27.1 
16.7 
84.9 
144.7 


59.3 
42.3 
26.7 
17.8 
86.8 
146.1 


56.0 
40.4 
24.9 
16.9 
82.2 
138.2 


54.1 
35.8 
23.5 
14.5 
83.8 
137.9 


basal phalanx 


middle phalanx 


terminal phalanx. . 


free finger 


total digit (-(-metacarp.) 





The following indices may be suggested, the most of which have al- 
ready been employed by some of the above authors. 

1 . Hand index. This indicates the shape of the entire hand, whether 
long and narrow or short and broad; it is found by comparing the total 
length of digit III (metacarp. + phi + 2 + 3) with the physiological 
breadth of the four finger metacarpals, taken across their bases, thus: 

physiological basal breadth, metacarp. II IV X 100 
physiol. length, entire digit III 

2. Palmar index. Like the previous one, save that the length of the 
palm is compared with its breadth, thus: 

physiological basal breadth, metacarp. II IV X 100 
physiol. length, metacarp. Ill 

3. Digital index. Intended to compare the length of the palm with 
that of the free fingers, taking for the comparison the third digit, which is 
the longest, thus: 

physiological length, metacarp. Ill X 100 
physiol. length, phal. 1 + 2 + 3 of digit III 

* ADACHI, B. and Y. (MME ADACHI) : Die Handknochen der Japaner. Mitt. med. 
Fakult&t Univ. Tokyo. Bd. 6, pp. 349+. 

ADACHI, B.: Die Fussknochen der Japaner. Mitt. med. Fakutt&t Univ. Tokyo. 
Bd. 6, pp. 307+. 

PFITZNER, W.: Maassverhaltnisse des Handskelet. Morph. Arb., 1892. Bd. 1, 
PP. 1+. 

UHLBACH, R. : Messungen an Hand- und Fussskeleten von Hottentotten. Zeitschr. 
Morphol. und Anthropol, 1914. Bd. 16, pp. 449-464. 



108 LABORATORY MANUAL OP ANTHROPOMETRY 

4. Thumb index (a). The relative length of the thumb is obtained by 
comparing its total physiological length (metacarp. + basal ph. -f ter- 
minal ph) with that of digit III, thus: 

physiol. length of thumb X 100 
physiol. length of digit III 

5. Thumb index (6). The relative length of the thumb, as indicated 
by its metacarpal, may be tested by comparing this latter bone with 
the metacarpal of digit III, thus: 

physiol. length of metacarpal I X 100 
physiol. length of metacarpal III 

6. Breadth index (separate phalanges). In this the breadth of a 
single bone, taken in three places and averages, is compared with the 
physiol length. 

average breadth X 100 
physiol. length 

7. Depth index (separate phalanges). As used by Uhlbach this index 
compares the average depth (height) with the average breadth. 

average depth (dorsal-ventral) X 100 
average breadth 

This might also be compared with the length, as in the previous index. 

In carrying this investigation further, as is bound to be done soon, 
both here and in the case of the foot, one sees that the number of possible 
indices, taken with all the possibilities of comparing sums of separate 
bones, is practically endless, and the investigator should avoid an aimless 
multiplication of such possible data, using new indices only for some 
definite purpose, usually to put into mathematical form some difference 
of proportion already detected by the eye, or suspected as the result of 
measurement. The study and comparison with the hands and feet of the 
larger apes should here, as elsewhere, suggest certain lines of difference 
where racial criteria are to be looked for. 

II. ANTHROPOMETRY OF THE CARPUS 

This is the most neglected region anthropometrically of the entire 
skeleton, as thus far no definite measurements of single bones have ever 
been established, or definite indices used. Causes for this may be 
found in the small size of the bones, in the rarity of properly determined 
sets of carpal bones, and also in the fact that, although small, these bones 
are complex in form and in their mutual actions, and thus require an 
unusual amount of data to be of use. 

It is likely that important characters may be found in the actions and 
habitual positions of these parts, or of the wrist as a whole, the exposition 
of which will involve more than single bones, mainly the proportions 
of adjacent articular facets and the mechanics of the possible motions 
between them. Again it will perhaps be sometime shown that character- 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 109 

istics of these sorts which seem to be racial may be in reality industrial 
or habitudinal, and have become the definite characteristics of a given 
race because of definite peculiarities in their racial culture. To illustrate 
this we have the claim of the two Adachis that the wrists and hands of the 
Japanese race are much more supple, and have a greater mobility that 
these parts in Europeans, and that this may be due to the harder forms 
of toil indulged in by the latter; not that they work harder, but that they 
are concerned with larger and heavier objects, such as larger tools, larger 
structures involving larger parts, and so on. 

In the case of the tarsus the importance of the various foot motions, 
especially those of the ankle, involved, not only in walking and climbing, 
but in sitting and squatting, have already called especial attention to 
such bones as the calcaneus and the talus, and these parts have received 
much special attention anthropometrically, and from these one may get 
excellent models and many suggestions concerning the prosecution of 
further study of the carpus (cf. below). As much of value has been sug- 
gested in other regions by the comparison with the same parts in the 
large apes, it may be suggested that here would be an unusual opportunity 
for suggestive comparison by observation of the use of the hands and 
wrists in these animals, and a constant comparison with the use in man. 



V. THE PELVIC SKELETON, INCLUDING HIP-GIRDLE AND 

SACRUM 

Pelvic Girdle 

Next to the skull the pelvic girdle, including the sacrum and the 
ossa coxae (innominata) is of the most general interest, and the two 
have many attributes in common. Like the skull, the pelvic girdle is 
complex, formed by several separate elements, showing in the adult 
several degrees of fusion, but never with more than a limited amount of 
independent motion; both skull and pelvic girdle, too, are in many places 
quite superficial, and allow numerous measurements to be made with 
equal facility upon the bones of the living, with either no difference in 
the result, (e.g., spinal breadth) or with only the slight difference caused 
by the thickness of the integument (e.g., cristal breadth). 

In another way the pelvic girdle is, in its treatment, like the skull, 
and that is in its need for orientation, and in its presentation of three 
dimensions, length [depth], breadth, and height. As in the skull there 
is a definite plane of orientation, the aim of which is to place the part in 
a natural position corresponding to that in the living. In the pelvic 
girdle, unlike the skull, the plane of orientation is vertical rather than 
horizontal, and the orientation is effected by placing the girdle, with 
its three parts (two ossa coxae and sacrum) fastened together, in such a 
position that the two anterior ventral iliac spines, and the ventral 



110 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

surface of the pubic arch are in contact with a board placed vertically. 
From its three contact points it is called the spino-symphysial plane, 
and because it is defined by three points instead of four it is mathe- 
matically more precise than is the use of the FH with the skull, which 
depends upon four. 

When oriented along the spino-symphysial plane the girdle possesses 
a maximum height, breadth (laterally), and depth (dorso-ventrally) , 
approximately at right angles to one another, the first three measurements 
given below. Oriented in this way there are the usual number of normse, 
as in the skull, which might come into use in making careful drawings or 
photographs for comparison, these have had little use thus far. 

The anthropological study of the pelvic girdle is one of the oldest sub- 
divisions of the subject, mainly, perhaps, on account of the early necessity 
of making measurements of this region in the female on the part of the 
obstetricians and gynaecologists. These men had thus assembled many 
data when the modern science came into existence, and all or nearly all 
of them found at once a place in the rubric of suggested measurements. 
Thus, in Turner's Report of the bones collected by H. M. S. Challenger 
(1886), the pelvic girdle, aside from the skull, to which an entrie mono- 
graph was devoted, has the first and most prominent place. No less 
that 35 separate data were presented, mostly measurements, with a few 
indices, and angles, and in this paper the Pelvic brim index (Turner's 
No. 15), originating from Zaaijer in 1866, was made much use of.* 

I. MEASUREMENTS 

(a) Outside measurement of the pelvic girdle as a whole. 

1. Maximum pelvic height; the greatest distance between the upper 
edge of the iliac crest and the lowest point of the sciatic tuber (ischiadic 
tuber osity) of the same side. As the two terminal points are on the 
same bone, this measurement becomes also the maximum length line 
of a single os coxae (innominate bone), and as such is employed in cal- 
culating certain indices, like the Innominate (3), and the Ischiadic (6). 

2. Maximum pelvic breadth (cristal breadth); the greatest distance 
between the two iliac crests, taken along the outer lips. This and other 
large pelvic and thoracic measures are taken with the pelvimeter (Pm), 
a large pair of calipers, with a reach of 600 mm. 

3. Maximum pelvic depth (dorso-ventral,' or sagittal). From the 
most dorsally projecting point of the sacrum, in the median line, to the 

* An excellent paper to serve as a laboratory manual for the measurement of the 
pelvis is that of KOGANEI and OSAWA, Das Becken, der Aino und der Japaner, Tokio, 
1900, in which the authors have made an exhaustive study of the pelvis both in the 
skeleton and in the living subject, employing a large number of subjects in all cases. 
Earlier papers of importance, dealing with the racial diffeiences, are TURNER'S Chal- 
lenger report, referred to above, and HENNIG, Das Rassenbecken, in Archiv f . Anthro- 
pol., 1885. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT or THE BONES 111 

most ventrally projecting point on the ventral surface of the pubic 
symphysis. Pm. 

4. Conjugate, externa (lumbo-pubic depth); this corresponds to the 
like-named measurement on the living, and is taken between the same 
two points, the point of the dorsal spine of the fifth lumbar vertebra, 
and the most ventral point of the pubic symphysis. This measurement 
is naturally possible only in cases in which the fifth lumbar vertebra 
belonging to the same pelvis is present. It is carefully adjusted in its 
proper place where it is held by plastilena, and the measurement is then 
taken as directed. This measurement in -the living exceeds that of the 
skeleton in the thickness of the two layers of integument and in the 
subcutaneous fat. 

5. Intertuberal breadth; from the center of the lower surface of one 
sciatic tuber to that of the other. This should be the same value in 
living or skeleton. RC. We may also make use of either : 

5a. Outer intertuberal breadth; measured from the most lateral points 
on the lower surface of the tubers, or 

56. Inner intertuberal breadth; measured from the most medial points 
on the lower surface of the tubers. In all cases it should be stated which 
measurement is used. 

6. Spinal breadth; the distance between the anterior ventral (anterior 
superior) spines of the ilia, taken from their outer lips. The same value 
as in the living. RC. 

7. Acetabular breadth; across the pelvic girdle from the center of the 
bottom of one acetabulum to that of the other. Pm. 

(6) Measurement of the pelvic basin. 

8. Upper sagittal diameter (conjugata vera); from the mid-ventral 
point of the anterior lip of the first sacral vertebra (promontoiium sacri), 
across the basin to the upper end of the inner surf ace of the pubic symphy- 
sis, but not to the inward projecting process a little lower down. 

9. Lower sagittal diameter (conjugata diagonalis) ; from the middle 
point of the promontorium sacri to the apex of the pubic angle, inner 
surface. 

10. Upper transverse diameter; the greatest transverse diameter of the 
pelvic brim (ilio-pectineal line), at right angles to 8. 

11. Lower transverse diameter; measured between the apices of the 
spines of the ischia. Only possible when the spines are intact. 

12. Oblique diameter of the pzlvic brim; upon the ilio-pectineal line 
from the ilio-sacral suture of one side to the region of the ilio-pectineal 
crest of the other side. This latter point corresponds closely to the 
original ilio-pubic suture, and lies above the lateral side of the obturator 
foramen. There are naturally two of these oblique measures, the dextro- 
sinistral and the sinistro-dextral; both should be measured, as pelves 
are frequently asymmetrical. 



112 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

13. Depth of the pelvic basin; from the ilio-pectineal line in the region 
of the ilio-pectineal crest, to the lowest point of the sciatic tuber of the 
same side. This line measures the antero-posterior* depth of the lower 
pelvis, and runs along the lateral boundary of the obturator foramen. 

(c) Measurements of a single os coxae. 

14. Maximum length of the os coxce; this is the same as the maximum 
pelvic height, used in connection with the entire pelvis [cf. No. 1 above]. 
The termini are the upper edge of the iliac crest and the lower surface of 
the sciatic tuber, where the greatest length is sought. Cr. 

15. Maximum breadth of the os coxa; the distance from the anterior 
dorsal (posterior superior) iliac spine to the anterior (upper ) end of the 
pubic symphysis, that is, the anterior medial apex of the pubic bone. Cr. 

16. Length (height) of the ilium; from the center of the acetabulum to 
the highest point of the iliac crest. SC or Cr. 

17. Breadth of the ilium; across from the anterior ventral (anterior 
superior) to the anterior dorsal (posterior superior) spine of the ilium. 
Cr or RC. 

18. Length of the os pubis; from the center of the acetabulum to the 
medial edge of the pubic symphysis, the maximum measure. SC. 

19. Length of the ischium; from the center of the acetabulum to the 
lowest point on the surface of the sciatic tuber, the maximum measure. 
SC. 

20. Length of pubic symphysis; this is the length of the roughened 
contact area between the two bones, measured along the medial border. 
SC. 

21. Vertical diameter of the acetabulum; from the middle of the notch 
between the ends of the articular surfaces, measured upon the lateral 
edge of the obturator foramen to the opposite edge of the acetabulum 
where the diameter is the greatest. SC. 

22. Transverse diameter of the acetabulum; the diameter taken at 
right angles to the preceding. SC. 

23. Vertical diameter of the obturator foramen; the maximum antero- 
posterior diameter, taken approximately parallel to the lateral edge. SC. 

24. Transverse diameter of the obturator foramen; the diameter taken at 
right angles to the above. SC. 

* Note that here and elsewhere the nomenclature used is the morphological 
one, as related to any mammal, irrespective of his posture, whether bipedal or quad- 
rupedal. Thus the terms anterior and posterior are equivalent to the older superior 
and inferior while the older terms anterior and posterior are replaced by ventral and 
do-sal respectively. Thus the common phrase "anterior superior spine of the crest 
of the ilium" is here the anterior ventral spine; the "posterior superior" is the anterior 
dorsal; the "anterior inferior" is the posterior ventral and so on. Also, in accordance 
with the BNA, os innominatum becomes os coxce, and the tuberosity of the ilium the 
sciatic tuber. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 113 

II. INDICES 

j*x i n j /-i o\ max - pelvic height X 100 

1. Breadth-height index (1:2)- . , , , , 

jti. j n. j /o o\ max - pelvic depth (dorso-ventral) X 100 

2. Breadth-depth index (3:2)- . . , , 

cristal breadth 

3. External conjugate index (4 : 2) -7-7- 

cristal Dreadtn. 

This index requires the presence of the fifth lunbar vertebra, and 
is therefore seldom possible. Its value consists mainly in its close corres- 
pondence to the same index on the living which is here one of the most 
important of the pelvic measurements. As the difference of this index 
in skeleton and in the living consists mainly in the addition of two,thick- 
nesses of integument to each measure, plus a slight reinforcement of 
fat added to the longer of the two, the proportions are kept almost exactly 
and there is probably less disparity in the index between the two con- 
ditions than in the length-breadth index of the head. 

4. Pdvicbrim index (Z:W) " pper .apt. diam. (conjugata vera) X 100 

upper transverse diameter 

As classified by Turner* (1886) this index is divided into three groups: 

brachypellic below 90 
mesopellic 90-95 
dolichopellic 95+ 

Male Australians, Hottentots, and Andaman Islanders, are dolicho- 
pellic; male negroes are mesopellic; and male Europeans, Hindus, 
Chinese, and American Indians are platypellic. The females are gener- 
ally broader than their respective males, but in the South American 
Indians the males are platypellic and the females mesopellic (Turner). 

breadth of ilium X 100 



5. Coxal index (17 : 14) 

6. Iliac index (17 : 16) 

7. Pubic index (18 : 17) 



max. length of os coxae 
breadth of ilium X 100 
length (height) of ilium 

pubic length X 100 
breadth of ilium 



T *.'. ! j /m -i A\ length of ischmm X 100 

8. Ischiadic index (19 : 14) - 

max. length of os coxae 

j tnA o\ transverse diam. of foramen X 100 

9. Obturator index (24 : 23) 

vertical diam. of foramen 

* In Turner's original paper the middle group was called mesatipellic, as was then 
usual. The three classes were presented also in the reverse order. These have 
both been modified here to correspond to the general plan of the book. Turner also 
suggested, as alternate terms with the ones favored, those with the suSix-lekanic, 
instead of -pellic. 
8 



114 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

III. ANGLES 

1. Subpubic angle; the angle formed by the two ischio-pubic rami, 
along their medial borders. 

As is well-known the subpubic angle is a famous sex criterion, being 
small in the male and large in the female, which is true of all human races. 
Still, it may have a racial significance also, although the data thus far 
obtained are meager. Thus Turner, upon the basis of single individuals , 
where the sexes did not even correspond racially, are yet of some signifi- 
cance. 

Males Females 

Australian 47 Negress 71 

Chinese 76 Hawaiian 102 

Malay 76 Lapplander 104 

Of these three males the average is 64; of the three females 85. Martin 
(1894) gives more complete data, from various sources: 

Names of race Males Females 

European 58 (Verneau) 76 (Martin) 

75 (Verneau) 
72 (Hennig) 

Fuegian 60.5 (Martin) 85 (Martin) 

60.7 (Garson) 

59 (Sergi) 81 (Sergi) 

Australians 78 (Martin) 

80 (Verneau) 
Andamanese 85 (Martin) 

2. Angle of inclination of the ilium. This is the angle made by the 
plane of the ilium with the horizon, and may best be reckoned mathe- 
matically by the use of data already obtained from measurements, 
viz. 

cristal breadth (2) 

upper transverse diameter of the pelvic brim (10) 

length (height) of the ilium (16) 

Nos. (2) and (10) are parallel to each other. (16) is set obliquely, 
connecting their ends. If the pelvis is perfectly symmetrical, which 
can by no means be taken for granted, these two parallel lines may be 
charted on a paper with their median points upon a common perpendic- 
ular which represents the median sagittal line. For complete accuracy 
the point in each line where it crosses the median plane should be noted 
in the measurement and these points, rather than the geometrical middle 
point, should be placed upon the perpendicular. In this way the exact 
inclination of each side can be either measured by the protractor upon 
the chart, or be reckoned by trigonometry from the data furnished. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 115 

3. Divergence of the two ilia from each other. This is nothing more than 
the sum of the previous angles as found for each side of a given pelvis, 
and is obtained by adding the two. It could also be obtained by some 
simple device which would measure this angle direct. 

4. Inclination angle of the pelvis as a whole. This means the in- 
clination of the conjugata vera to the spino-symphysial plane, or to 
the horizontal, which is the complement of the first. This angle is best 
measured direct upon the bones by some form of goniometer, the two legs 
resting upon the promontorium (in the median line) and the inner surface 
of the upper edge of the pubic arch. If the girdle be held in an osteophore 
from behind, and the vertical board used in orientation removed, the 
aspect required is quite exposed, and readily accessible to either the 
stationary or the clamp-on type of goniometer, by which the angle may 
be easily measured. For some methods of measurement a steel needle, 
fastened to the bone in such a way as to represent the conjugata vera, 
is of assistance. 

5. Sacral inclination angle. This angle, which belongs more properly 
under the head of measurements of the sacrum, is the inclination of the 
sacral base to the spino-symphysial plane . The sacral base is the anterior 
surface of the body of the first sacral vertebra, which, in a complete girdle, 
is so closely fastened to the ilia, and intimately associated with them, that 
it serves as a base for the entire complex. This is measured by the 
goniometer, any form, upon a girdle properly oriented, and held in an 
osteophore applied dorsally. The measure ment is much assisted by first 
applying a steel needle to the surface of the base, along the median plane, 
and firmly fastened to the bone. 

General considerations concerning angular measurements. In all 

angular measurements, both here and elsewhere, the actual obtaining 

of the values is a matter of individual ingenuity, in which there are always 

many possibilities. In general there are three kinds of methods, viz.: 

(a) direct measurement on the bone, by some sort of goniometer 

(6) charting the essential lines on paper, and measuring the angles 

thus obtained by means of a protractor 

(c) getting the essential data by linear measurements, and reckon- 
ing the values of the angles involved by trigonometrical 
methods. 

In many cases, where a single definite angle is receiving special at- 
tention, and where it therefore has to be measured again and again, 
the investigator has devised some special form of goniometer fitted to 
this particular purpose. This is to be generally encouraged, especially 
when the device is simple, but the modern tendency seems to be to 
reduce, rather than multiply, the number of different instruments, and 
to render those used more universal in their application. Thus, the 
calipers (craniometer) of the present time, and the pelvimeter, are 
practically identical in form, differing only in size, which is wholly a 
matter of convenience, and both are devised for use in cases where the two 



116 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

termini of a line frequently have some obstacle between them which has 
to be reached around in order to obtain a straight measurement. Again 
the slide-compass and the rod-compass are practically the same thing 
in two sizes, also for convenience; and these with the clamp-on goni- 
ometer the tape, and the anthropometer, of which the rod-compass is an 
adjustment, are all that is needed both for bones and the living, for all 
anthropometric uses except certain special work. 

Aside from the sub-pubic angle, the difference in the value of 
which in the two sexes has long been known, the ossa coxae with the 
sacrum exhibit other marked sexual differences, which may usually be 
relied upon in sexing a skeleton. These latter are especially practical 
when applied in the field during excavation, or in the case of incomplete 
skeletons, as they concern the single parts of which the girdle is composed 
and consequently do not require to have the pelvis put together as is the 
case with the subpubic angle. 

The following are the most pronounced of the sex-determining char- 
acters of the separate ossa coxae: * 

1. The curve of the iliac crest. This is higher and more abrupt in the 
male; or, in other words, the outline presents the arc of a much smaller 
circle. It also turns down more abruptly dorsally. 

2. The shape of the sacro-sciatic notch. This is narrow and deep in the 
male; shallow and wide in the female. 

3. The sulcus paraglenoidalis s. praeauricularis. This is a groove, 
which runs over the inner surface of the ilium, just posterior to the au- 
ricular surface, and parallel to its posterior border. It is very, variable 
in its appearance and occurrence, being generally absent in males, and 
present in females, with exceptions both ways. When well developed 
it is 2 cm. or more in length, and runs over the dorsal margin of the bone, 
so that it may sometimes be seen upon the outer side.f 

4. The acetabulum. 

(a) This is larger in males; smaller in females. 
(6) In females it looks more forwards; in males more laterally. 
This character can be seen only in the complete pelvis. 

Sacrum % 

I. MEASUREMENTS 

1 . Mid-ventral curved length; the length of the median line, drawn along 
the ventral surface, from the median point in the anterior or margin 

* There are also certain sex differences in the sacrum, which are noted in their 
proper place, below. 

f For a recent discussion of the sulcus paraglenoidalis (praeauricularis) cf . DERBY, 
in Journ. Anat. and Physiol, Vol. 43, 1909, pp. 266-276; see also LOHR, in Anal. Am., 
Bd. IX, 1894. 

t Cf. RADLATDER Beitrage zur Anatomie des Kreuzbeines. Morphol. Jahrs., 
Bd. 38, 1908, pp. 323-447. This work was done at Zurich under Rudolf Martin, 
and is a complete analysis of the sacrum, treated anthropometrically and racially, 
according to the newest methods. The work may be taken as a standard and is 
largely followed here. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



117 



of the promo ntorium to that of the apex, without including the coccyx. 
(Fig. 37, the curved lineal). TM. 

2. Mid-ventral straight length (length of sacral axis); the length of 
the straight line drawn between the two terminals employed in the pre- 
vious measurement (the line ab in Fig. 37). SC. 

3. Anterior curved breadth; the length of the line drawn perpendicular 
to (1), across the ventral surface of the first sacral vertebra, between 
the widest points of the margins of the lateral wings. TM. 

4. Anterior straight breadth; the length of the straight line drawn 
between the two termini employed in (3). SC. 

5. Middle curved breadth; the 

length of the line drawn perpendicular / f 

to (1), across the ventral surface, 

connecting the posterior angles of the 

wings as termini. These terminal 

points are practically at the level 

of the lowest point of the auricular 

surfaces, which can be used in cases 

where the lower angles of the wings 

are indefinite. TM. 

6. Middle straight breadth; the 
straight line drawn between the 
termini employed in (5). SC. 

7. Lower breadth; the distance be- 
tween the posterior lateral angles, or, 
when these are not evident, the 
greatest breadth across the bone at 
the level of the most posterior pair of 

foramina. At this level the ventral FlQ - 37. Median curve of sacrum. 

r .. , , . I-V, centra of vertebrae; a-b. mid-ventral 

SUrtace OI the DOne IS SO flat that there curved length; c-d, maximum height of 

is practically no difference between the curvature. (After Radiauer.) 
straight and curved breadths. SC. 

8. Maximum height of curvature; the greatest distance bet ween the two 
lines used in (1) and (2), measured on a line perpendicular with (2); 
i.e., the line cd in Fig. 37. 

9. Position of the maximum height line; the relative position of the 
point c in Fig. 37, the foot of the perpendicular used in the previous 
measurement. The distance here measured is that from the promontor- 
ium to the foot of the perpendicular, the line ac of the figure above 
referred to. This figure is a profile projection of the median sagittal 
curve, and is drawn upon a properly oriented bone by means of a diagraph, 
precisely as in the corresponding craniogram described elsewhere. 
Several important sacral measurements may be measured upon it, such 
as Nos. 2, 8, and 9. These may be measured also directly upon the bone, 
and the two used to check each other. An instrument especially devised 




118 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



for measurements 8 and 9 consists of two graded scales , set at right arigles 
to each other. One spans the bone in the. median line, and is placed in 
contact at the promontorium and the apex, while the other, which slides 
upon the first, and also lengthens and shortens, is adjusted as desired. 
When in the position cd its length, and its position on the base line, can 
be read off on the scales.* 

10. Antero-posterior (sagittal) diameter of the anterior articular surface', 
the surface that articulates with the last lumbar vertebra. SC or TM 

11. Lateral (transverse) diameter of the same. Nos 10 and 11 must 
be at right angles to each other. SC or TM 



II. INDICES 



(a) Sacral indices; designed to show the general shape of the bone as a 

whole. 



I. Sacral index A (4 : 2) 



anterior straight breadth X 100 



mid-ventral straight length 

1N anterior straight breadth X 100 
2. Sacral index B (4 : 1) - 7-5 

mid-ventral curved length 

, N anterior curved breadth X 100 
Sacral index' c (3:1)- =-^ 

mid-ventral curved length 

Of the above three indices A is the classical one used by Turner; 
while B and C have the merit of expressing the full value of the vertebral 
axis, but have thus far been but little used. In these indices the sexual 
difference is marked, the breadth measures, and consequently the indices, 
being greater in females, f 

The following values of Sacral index, A, have been found for various 
races, and appear here. as compiled by Radlauer. 

RACAL INDICES SACRAL INDEX A 



Name or race 


Males 


Females 


Negtoes . . ; . . 


91.4 (33) 


103.6 (18) 


Egyptians ,..'.... '. 


94.3 (7) 


99.1 (2) 


Andamanese 


94.8 (22) 


103.4 (35) 


Australians 


100.2 (14) 


110.0 (13) 


Japanese . .... 


101.5 (37) 


107 1 (36) 


Europeans : 


102.9 (63) 


112.4 (43) 









* This instrument was devised by RADLAUER and is figured by him in the article 
above cited (p. 336). 

t With the exception of the ossa coxae (innominata; there is no bone in the body 
more profoundly modified by sex than is the sacrum. The sex should thus be con- 
stantly regarded in all general averages, especially those which concern breadth of 
the bones, or the depth of curvature, and in conclusions connected with racial char- 
acteristics. Cf. DERRY: The influence of sex on the position and composition of the 
Human Sacrum, in Journ. Anat and Physiol. (Engl.), 1912, pp. 184-192. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



119 



The numbers in parentheses give the number of individuals studied 
in each case. 

Sacral indices like these are classified in three groups, with the fol- 
lowing values : 

Index below 100 dolichohieric 

Index between 100 and 106 subplatyhieric 

Index above 106 platyhieric 

In general, averaging both sexes, the narrowest sacra (dolichohieric) 
are those of Malays, Andamanese and Bushmen; sacra of middle pro- 
portions are possessed by many Caucasians, American Indians, Chinese, 
and Japanese; while wide sacra (platyhieric) occur among Australians 
and the Apline peoples of Europe. There are, however, in many cases, 
conflicting figures presented by different authorities, presumably because 
of the small numbers of individuals measured, in some cases only three or 
four. 

(6) Longitudinal curvature indices. 

mid- ventral straight length X 100 



4. Curvature index A (2:1) 



mid-ventral cui ved length 



_ n j D /o- ON maximum height of curvature X 100 

5. Curvature index B (8 : 2) - r^- 

mid-ventral straight length 



6. Curvature index C (9 : 2) 



position of maximum height line X 100 
mid-ventral straight length 



These indices, devised by Radlauer, present the following values, al- 
though the number of individuals used is often too small for final 
conclusions. 

CURVATURE INDICES OF VARIOUS RACES 



Curvature 



Curvature 



Curvature 



Name of race 


index A. 


index B. 


index C. 


Simian apes 


98 7 


9 6 


42 9 


Negroes . ... 


92 4 


18.1 


63.1 


American Indians 


91 6 


19 5 


72 5 


Asiatics 


89 7 


20 


67.2 


Australians and Oceanians 


93.1 


20.8 


48.8 


Europeans 


86 5 


23 6 


50 4 











In index A the nearer the index approaches 100 the flatter is the 
longitudinal curve; in B the higher figures represent a deeper curve. 
Thus, in the Simian apes both the high index A and the low index B show 
that the longitudinal curve is slight, i.e., that the sacral axis is more nearly 



120 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



a straight one than in man. The position of the point of greatest curva- 
ture, as indicated by Index C, varies with the amount of curvature, lying 
farther back (more posteriorly) when the curve is deeper. This is indi- 
cated by the larger numbers, which show that the line ac is longer. In 
this particular the Fuegians have the highest number, and consequently 
the most posterior position of any race yet studied, modifying the general 
rule concerning the relation of curvature to position of the foot of the 
perpendicular, for in these people the actual amount of curvature, 
although great, is not quite that of the Europeans. 

(c) Transverse curvature indices. 

m j i i A ON anterior straight breadth X 100 

Transverse cunature index A (4 : 3) - ; 

anterior curved breadth 



Transverse curvature index B (6 : 5) 



middle straight breadth X 100 
middle curved breadth 



These two indices consist merely of comparisons of the straight and 
curved transverse diameters at respectively the anterior and middle parts 
of the sacrum, and indicate the amount of curvature, or longitudinal 
rolling, found in a given case. A similar index at the more posterior 
part of the sacrum has no especial meaning, as there the ventral surface 
of the bone is so flat that there is practically no difference between the 
two measurements. For these two indices the following racial values 
have been determined. 



VALUES OF TRANSVERSE CURVATURE INDICES [RADLAUER, 394]. 



Name of Race 


Transv. curv. 
index A 


Transv. curv. 
index B 


Lower apes 


90 5 




Simian apes 


97.1 


97 3 


Australians, Oceanians 


94.8 


97 3 


Negroes 


94 6 


97 8 


Asiatics 


95 1 


97 4 


American Indians 


95.3 


97 9 


Europeans 


95.5 


98 









From these figures it will be seen that the sacrum is more nearly flat 
at about the middle than at the upper level; also that the European 
have the flattest sacra transversely, and the Australians and negroes the 
most curved, along the same aspect. Taken as racial criteria the slight 
difference shown here, which include the races of the greatest general 
difference, gives us little to hope for in the use of these indices. Prob- 
ably the actual value of these transverse curvature indices is but 
slight. 



OSTEOMETKY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 121 

(d) Miscellaneous 

, ., 1 . x sagittal diameter X 100 

9. Index of the sacral base (10 : 11) - p 

transverse diameter 

This index, a comparison of the two diameters of the anterior articular 
surface of the first sacral vertebra, (= Sacral base) has not yet been shown 
to be of much importance racially. It gives the relative shape of this 
flat surface, and range from 54.1 in the inhabitants of the Ural Mts. to 
66.4 in the Burmese. The index for Europeans is estimated at 58.5, 
but for the Alpine peoples, at 58.7. In Negroes it is 61.2 and in Asiatics 
in general 62.6. 

III. ANGLES 

Promontory angle; this is the angle formed between the flat surface 
of the sacral basis and the beginning of the longitudinal curve of the ven- 
tral surface, as taken in the mid-ventral line, (angle fae, or fac in Fig. 37) 
This angle is the least in the Tyrolese, 58; and the highest in Asiatics, 
averaging, 65. In the Neolithic station at Schweizersbild are found 
sacra with a promontory angle of 70, five degrees more than in any recent 
race. 

The sacral inclination angle (No. 5 under Pelvic girdle, above) uses 
the plane of the sacral base for one of its sides, but, as it requires the 
spino-symphysial plane for the other, must be taken only on a complete 
girdle. Another form of the Promontory angle, which is in some ways 
more satisfactory than the one given here, might be made by using, with 
the same plane of the sacral base, the entire straight length line instead 
of the one indicating the anterior portion of the ventral surface, i.e., 
the line ab of Fig. 37 rather than the line ae of the same figure. This 
line seems not to have been used, and is hence not recommended 
here. 

Other angles suggested, and occasionally used, are (1) the angle formed 
by the plane of the two auricular surfaces, usually meeting along an im- 
aginary line posterior to the bone, and (2) the angle of inclination of 
the sacrum, or of the sacral axis, when the subject is standing. This 
latter, like that of the inclination of the pelvis as a whole, can be measured 
only upon the living subject, and then only approximately. 

It might be possible, however, to relate the sacrum to some definitely 
determined plane in a properly articulated pelvic girdle, such as the spino- 
symphysial plane or that of the rim of the lower pelvis, and thus obtain 
proportions or relations of importance. 

Anatomical variations in the sacrum, such as the number of the verte- 
brae which compose it, or the sacralization of the last lumbar vertebra, 
are mainly of biological interest, as are similar variations in other bones, 
and seem to have no racial significance. 



122 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



VI. THE BONES OF THE LEG AND FOOT 

Femur* 

I. MEASUREMENTS 

A. Length 

Under this head four possible measurements may betaken, asfollows :- 

1. Absolute length', taken with the osteometric board. OB 

2. Physiological length; this is the length used by Turner, and described 
by him as "taken in the oblique position". The two condyles are set 
upon a plane surface, and the length is then measured along a line per- 
pendicular to this plane. This is taken with the osteometric board by 
placing the two condyles in contact with the fixed end. The shaft then 
lies obliquely in the trough of the board, and the moveable piece is shut 
down upon the head, thus measuring the greatest length obtainable 
with the bone in this position. This corresponds to the physiological, or 
efficient, length in the living limb. OB 

- 3. Trochanteric length; from the most prominent point of the greater 
trochanter to the most distal point of the lateral condyle. This is an 
especially convenient measure, since it can be taken upon an articulated 
skeleton, or upon a fragmentary femur that has lost the head. 

It can also be approximately detei mined upon the living subject . RC 
Recent English work on this bone is that of Parsons; Characters of 
the English Thigh-bone (Journ. Anat. [English], Vol. 48, 1913-14; and 
Vol. 49, 1914-15). The author obtained his material from a crypt of the 
13th and 14th Centuries, where the bones of some 33,000 persons had 
been interred, and thus had recourse to an enormous collection of bones 
of mediaeval Englishmen. Holtby in the same Journal (Vol. 52, 1918), 
gives a few additional data. 

4. Diaphysial length (shaft-length); this uses as the two terminal 
points the upper end of the anterior intertrochanteric line, marked by a 
slight tubercle, and the middle of the anterior intercondyloid line, that is, 
its most proximal point. This may be measured by any suitable in- 
strument; Lehmann-Nitsche uses a steel tape. RC or TM. 

* A thorough analysis of the femur anthropometrically, both in the recent species, 
and in H. primigeniits, is found in KLAATSCH'S paper in Merkel and Bonnet's Anat. 
Ergebnisse, Bd. X. 1900. The special part treating of the femur is found on pp. 
609-665. There is also an excellent bibliography of the subject to date. The full 
title is, Die wichtigsten Variationen am Skelet der freien unteren Extremitaten 
des Menschen, und ihre Bedeutung fiir das Abstammingsproblem. 

Much of the pioneer work upon the femur, and the other long bones, was done 
by LEHMANN-NITSCHE in his investigation of the prehistoric " Reihengraber " skeletons 
Cf. for this, his " Untersuchungen tiber die langen Knochen der siidbayerischen Rei- 
hengraberbevolkerung", in Beitrage zur Anthropol. u. Urgeschichte Bayerns. Bd. IX. 
1895. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 123 

B. Shaft. 

(a) Proximal shaft diameters SC or Cr. 
5. Dorso-ventral diameter of shaft \ At a point about 3 cm. distal to 



6. Medio-lateral diameter of shaft J the lesser trochanter. 

(6) Middle shaft diameters SC or Cr. 

7. Dorso-ventral diameter of shaft \ ., c ,, , ,, 

, ,. J , , J f . > At the middle of the shaft. 

8. Medio-lateral diameter of shaft ) 

(c) Circumference TM. 

9. Circumference of shaft at the middle; taken at the same level as 
the two previous measurements. 

C. Proximal end. 

10. Oblique proximal breadth; the greatest breadth of the proximal 
epiphysis, measured along the axis of the head and neck. This measure- 
ment is taken from the free surface of the head to the most lateral point 
on the surface of the greater trochanter. SC or RC. 

11. Length of head and neck; from the free surface of the head to the 
center of the intertrochanteric line. 

*12. Vertical diameter of the head; this is measured on the periphery 
and is the greatest diameter possible in this plane, which is parallel 
with the main axis of the shaft of the bone. SC. 

13. Transverse diameter of the head; similar to the last but taken 
through a plane at right angles to the axis of the bone, and to the plane 
used in the previous measurement. SC. 

14. Circumference of the head; taken around the largest place. TM. 

15. Vertical diameter of the neck; taken across the neck, in the same 
plane as that used in measurement 12. SC. 

16. Transverse diameter of the neck; taken across the neck, at right 
angles to the previous measurement; in the same plane as No. 13. SC. 

17. Circumference of the neck; naturally the maximum circumference 
is intended. TM. 

D. Distal end. 

18. Dorso-ventral diameter of the shaft just above the condyles. For 
this a point in the middle of the flat area proximal to the condyles should 

* PARSONS (Engl. Journ. Anat., 1913-14, p. 253) finds the diameter of the head 
of the femur of great use in sexing the bone, as this measurement is distinctly less in 
the female. Instead of using the vertical and transverse diameters, as recommended 
here (Nos. 12 and 13) the author uses the maximum diameter, which he finds by ro- 
tating the slide compass around the periphery of the head until he finds it (usually 
not far from the vertical line as here used). In English females this diameter is nearly 
always less than 45 mm.; in males of the same people it is in excess of 47 mm. In 
those few cases which are between these limits one cannot be certain about the sex. 
Cf. also, DWIGHT, in Amer. Journ. Anat., Vol. IV, 1905, pp. 19-32. 



124 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



be taken, about 4 cm. proximal to the line delimiting the articular 
surface. Cr. 

19. Medio-lateral diameter of the shaft just above the condyles. This 
is to be taken at the same transverse level as No. 18, and should be at 
right angles with it. Cr. 

20. Greatest medio-lateral breadth across the epicondyles; this is the 
greatest medio-lateral breadth of the lower end of the bone, and is 
ascertained by trial. It should be strictly lateral, and not passed ob- 
liquely from a ventral portion of one condyle to a dorsal portion of the 
other. OB; perhaps also SC or RC. 

*21. Greatest dorso-ventral length of the lateral condyle; taken with the 
SC across the bone, at right angles to the axis. SC. 

*22. Greatest dorso-ventral length of the medial condyle; taken in the 
same way as the preceding. SC. 



* The significance of these last two measurements has been brought out in the 
comparison of the distal end of the femur in modern man and in the Neandertal 
species, as in the latter the lateral condyle is distinctly longer (deeper) than the 
medial one, while in the modern type the two are about equal. Thus, comparing 
the two although with a very few individuals concerned, we have the following: 



Name of race 


Length of lat. 
condyle 


Length of med. 
condyle 


Average of 25 modern femora; various races 


60 


55.3 


European, No. 1 


59 


60 


European, No. 2 


62 


61 


Negrito 


53 


53 


Neandertal (right) 


70 


67 


Neandertal (left) 


71 


66 


Spy 1 (right) 


72 


67 









Again, by comparing the length of the lateral condyle (Measurement No. 21) 
with the length of the entire bone (here the trochanteric length, Measurement No. 3), 
the excessive length of the condyle in the Neandertals becomes at once apparent, 
thus: 



Name of race 


Trochanteric 
length 


Length of lat- 
eral condyle 


Negrito 


390 


53 


Fuegians (8) 


406.4 


61.2 


Veddah 


425 


60 


Europeans (3) 


443.3 


64 


Neandertal (right,; 


423 


70 


Neandertal (left) 


425 


71 


Spy I (right) . . 


410 (approx.) 


72 









OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 125 

n. INDICES 
A. Caliber indices. 

T r ,, . , j / o\ circum. of shaft at middle X 100 

1. Length-circumference index (9:2)- : ^ 

physiological length 

T ,T j. j / i o r\ sagit. + transverse diameters 

2. Lerqth-diameterindex(7 + 8 : 2) ^j^e of shaft X 100 

The ' ' Robusticity index ' ' r-j 

physiological length 

B. Shape indices. 

3. KS$ feb, (5 : 6) ant.-post. diam. of shaft proximal X 100 

transverse diam. at same point 

platymeric below 85 

eurymeric 85-100 

stenomeric 100 + 

(middle) dorso-ventral diam. of shaft, at middle 

4. Pilastric index (7 : 8) of the bone X 100 



medio-lateral diam. at same point 
(distal) dorso-ventral of shaft, just above 

5. Popliteal index (18 : 19) the epicondyles X 100 

medio-lateral diam. at same point 

G. Indices of proximal end. 

TT j j i /io io\ transverse diam. of head X (100 

6. Head index A (13 : 12) - -. -p ^-r 

vertical diam. of head 

7. Head index .5(13 + 12 :2) transverse + vertical diameters of 
"Robusticity index" head X 100 



8. Neck-length index (11 



physiological length 
length of head and neck + 100 



physiological length 

D. Indices of distal end. 

9. Epicondylar breadth index (20 : 2) greatest medio-lateral breadth 

across the epicondyles X 100 
physiological length 

10. Intercondylar index (22 : 21) length of medial epicondyle X 100 

length of lateral epicondyle 

., 1 n , , , .7.7 / 01 O N length of lateral epicondyle X 100 

11. Condylar length index (21:2) - r . , .-,-, 

physiological length 

Many of the indices above listed were at first devised to bring out more 
definitely certain differences already noted, which occur between man 
and the higher apes, or between modern man and the prehistoric H. 
neandertalensis, and hence like differences shown by measurements be- 
tween the various human races may be found to have a developmen- 
tal significance. Thus, the head of the femur is enormously large in 
the Neandertal type as compared with the modern species; and the 
difference in the shape of the shaft between the two human species and 
the gorilla is shown by the pilastric index. Other indices, indicate form- 



126 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

differences that have been in all probability brought about by habitual 
posture or habit, such as an habitual squatting as compared with sitting 
in chairs or upon stools. A few significant results as interesting in com- 
parisons, may be given here. 

Platymeric index (No, 3) . Normal femora are always either platy- or 
eury-meric. Stenomeric femora seem always to be pathological. Among 
extremely platymeric peoples may be reckoned the Maori (63.6) the 
Hawaiians (65.4) and the Fuegians (66.9). The Hindu (72.6) and the 
Japanese (75.5) are moderately platymeric. The native Australians 
(82.2) and the Swiss (84.6) are almost eury-meric; and the Negroes 
(85.3), the French (88.2), and the Eskimo (88.3), are quite so. Ancient 
British skeletons, excavated in the neighborhood of the Roman wall, 
are very platymeric (67.7), while the modern British are more nearly 
eurymeric, with an average index of 81.8. This may suggest a partial 
substitution of race, or may be the result of a cultural change in the 
manner of resting, chairs vs. squatting. 

Pilastric index (No. 4) . This index is that of the two diameters of the 
bone, taken in the middle of the shaft, and is thus named from its in- 
clusion of the longitudinal ridge or pilaster, which furnishes an attachment 
for certain of the large thigh muscles. This index is open to the objection 
that it is modified by the degree of development of the ridge, yet it shows 
considerable differences between modern man and the large apes, and 
may be considered of value. In general, in man, the shaft is in this 
region nearly circular, taken without the pilaster, and may thus be pre- 
sumed to furnish an index of about 100. This the pilaster itself increases 
so that in all men an index of some over 100 is to be expected. The 
following indices have been found: 

Australians 122.2 

Veddah 122.1 

Eskimo 118.4 

Malay 114.7 

N. Amer. Indians ...... 112.4 

Cro-Magnon. . "...... 111.6 

Maori 110.1 

Negroes 108.0 

French 107.8 

South Germans 105.3 

Fuegians 103.5 

Japanese 100.0 

Neandertal species (aver.) 99.0 

Gorilla (5 femora; aver.) 78.0 

Neck-length index (No. 8). In the exact form advised here there 
do not seem to be available figures as yet, but for two measurements very 
similar to those involved certain interesting figures are known. In 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



127 



these the trochanteric length (No. 3) and the total distance from the 
head to the outer margin of the bone are taken, which is very similar to 
our Measurement No. 10. The index can be readily calculated. The 
measures are generally those of single femora; those marked * are 
averages. 



Name of race 


Trochanteric 
length 


Proximal breadth 


Japanese ... . . . . ... 


390 


87 


*Ainu. ... .... .... 


394.4 


85.8 


Javanese 


400 


94 


*Fuegian 


408 7 


88 


Malay . . . . 


410 


89 


Gilbert Islander 


420 


96 


*South Germans 


428 


91.5 


Neandertal (right) . . 


423 


105 


Neandertal (left) 


425 


106 


Spv I.. 


410 (approx.) 


110 









The markedly greater length of the proximal epiphysis in the Neander- 
tal species, as compared with recent man, is here clearly shown. With 
a moderate trochanteric length the proximal breadth, that is, the length 
of the axis of head and neck, is far greater than is f dund in any normal 
femur of modern man. This is probably correlated in some way with the 
massiveness of the head of the femur in the earlier species. 

Head index B; = Robusticity index of head (No. 7). This index should 
show the large size of the head in femora of the Neandertal species, since 
this peculiarity strikes the eye immediately, and is indicated by the 
following list of measurements. Although these give the absolute, 
instead of the physiological, length, the two differ but two or three 
millimeters as a rule, and indices using this length instead of the one 
recommended here, would show the contrast very decidedly. The figures, 
mostly of single measurements, are as follows: 



Name of race 


Absol. length 


Vertical diam. 
of head 




Transverse 
diam. of head 


Circumference 
of head 


Adamanese 


375 




36 1* 






Lapps . . 


380 5 




40 3* 






Hawaiian 


404 




39 0* 






Fuegians 


427 1 


45 9 




46 3 


146.4 


Alemanni (ancient) 


436.6 


44.3 




45.4 


147 


Neandertal (right) . 


439 


50 5 




52.0 


164 


Neandertal (left)... 


440 


52.0 




53.0 


165 


Spy 1 (right) . 


430 


52 




53 


175 




(approx.) 











In the figures marked 
specified. 



there is but one diameter given, and that one is not 



128 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

Here the Neandertals are best compared with the Alamanni, in which 
the absolute length is about the same, while the disparity in the dimen- 
sions of the head are evident. That this large and heavy head is in some 
way correlated with the great length of the proximal epiphysis, which 
includes head and neck, is highly probable. 

III. ANGLES 

1. Collo-diaphysial angle. This is the angle made by the axis of head 
and neck with that of the shaft (of the bone as a whole). It is usually 
measured by first placing steel needles along the bone to define the two 
axes, and then measuring the angle made by their intersection by means 
of a transparent, or other, protractor. 

As this angle varies at different ages, becoming more nearly a right 
angle in senile femora, it should be used only through the middle part 
of life, from maturity to perhaps the 60th year. The angle differs 
markedly in the two human species, H. sapiens and H. neandertalensis, 
being much greater in the former. Thus in Germans it averages 125.9, 
in Swiss, 133.; and in Fuegians, 123.0, while in Homo neandertalensis it 
varies between 115 and 120. 

2 Condylo-diaphysial angle. Stand several femora on the table, 
on their distal ends, resting both condyles on the surface, and with the 
bone extending vertically upward, and it will be noticed that the inclina- 
tion of the bone to the surface of the table is not the same. This displays 
practically the condylo-diaphysial angle, which is the angle between a 
line drawn across the condyles distally and the axis of the shaft. As in 
the former case these lines are determined by the eye, and marked by 
steel needles, fixed to the bone by wax, or plastilene, while the angle is 
read off by a protractor. It may be also measured by means of a specially 
prepared osteometric board, upon which the bone is laid as in getting 
the physiological length. This angle has been determined at 8 in 
Fuegians, and 11 in Swiss. In H. neandertalensis it has been estimated 
at 9, quite within the range of variation of modern men. 

3 Angle of torsion; the angle formed by the axis of head and neck 
projected upon that of the condyles, and is measured in the same way as 
is the like-named angle in the humerus, by the parallelograph. If 
found to be easier the two axes may be marked by applying steel needles 
to the bone. The bone is then held vertically in a clamp, and the two 
axes are drawn as projections upon a piece of paper placed on the table 
underneath the suspended bone (see Fig. 11, p. 18). 

This angle shows great individual variation, but may be of some racial 
value also. Thus Martin found in Fuegians a range of values between 
6 and 38, with a mean value of 18.3. The right femur of the Neander- 
tal skeleton has a torsion angle of 9.5, and the same bone in Spy 1, 
shows a value of 12. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 129 

IV. CURVATURE OF SHAFT 

This character of the femur may be noticed incidentally by placing 
a series of femora on the table, dorsal side down, and lying in their 
natural position, when it will be noticed that the highest point of the 
convex curve of the ventral (anterior) surface differs considerably, i.e., 
that some femora lie flatter than others. This is a definite characteristic 
of the Neandertals, in whom the femora curve up strikingly higher than 
do those of the present living species. 

No special apparatus has been devised to measure this with accuracy 
but by simply measuring the highest point of this curve by a ruler held 
vertically upon the table, and making an index with this as numerator 
and the physiological length as denominator. In this way the amount 
of curvature of individual bones may be easily compared. 

Patella* 

In spite of its small size, the patella is an important bone anthro- 
pometrically, as it is one of the parts, like the distal end of the femur, 
the proximal end of the tibia, and the bones of the ankle, which are 
concerned in the various methods of sitting and squatting, and are thus 
modified by the cultural environment of various races. These effects 
are largely seen on the dorsal (inner) surface, expressed in the articular 
surfaces; there are also differences in the relative size and shape of the 
entire bone. Yet, although these racial and individual differences have 
been recognized, very little actual work has as yet been done upon this 
bone, and the measurements proposed (e. g. Martin; Lehrbuch, pp. 
930-31) are still mainly in the form of suggestion for future investigation.! 

The articular surface of a patella is divisible into a number of facets, 
set at slightly different angles, reflecting the various habitual positions 
of the knee in different races and in different individuals. The most 
constant are (1) an inner and (2) an outer, of which the inner is much 
narrower, thus easily orientating the bone and distiguishing the left 
from the right. In some races there seem to be three such the third 
being placed between the first two. The outer one, also, is sometimes 
divided across into a larger upper, and a much smaller lower facet, as is 
seen in the Punjabi [Lamont, 1900]. The proportions of these facets 
may be readily expressed by the indices of the measurements of the 
maximum length and breadth of these separate facets. 

Aside from the study of the facets there are the measurements of the 
bone as a whole. Martin (1914) gives the following measurements.- 

1 Maximum height', taken along the main axis of the extended leg, 
from base to apex. SC. 

* See a paper by J. C. LAMONT in Jour. Anat. and Physiol., Vol. 44, 1910. This is 
upon the patella of the Punjabi and consists of two pages only, but is important, 
t (See note at end of section on Tibia.). 
9 



130 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

2 Maximum breadth; across the bone from side to side, at right 
angles to the previous measurement. SC. 

3 Maximum thickness; taken by placing the patella in the sagittal 
plane between the two arms of the slide compass. SC. 

Then follow certain definite measures of the articular surfaces, which 
can be devised by the investigator in accordance with what he wishes to 
show. Martin suggests the height (proximo-distal) of the entire arti- 
cular surface, and the breadth of the two lateral facets. For indices he 
suggests :- 

1 Height index; this compares the height of the patella with the com- 
bined length of femur and tibia, and in order to make a comparison 
between two measurements of such different proportions, he takes a 
tenth of the latter measure, or, what is the same thing, multiplies the 
numerator (height of the patella) by 1000 instead of 100, thus 

Maximum height of patella (1) X 1000 
length of femur + length of tibia 

For definite values of this index he suggests, 

low patella below 50 

medium height 50-55 

high patella 55 + 

2. Breadth index; he avoids dealing with such disparity in numbers 
by comparing the patellar breadth with the breadth of the femoral 
epicondyles, thus, 

maximum breadth of patella (2) X 100 

epicondylar breadth of femur 
values : 

narrow patella below 51 

medium breadth 51-56 

broad patella 56+ 

3. Height-breadth index of patella; this is simply the index of the two 
main dimensions of the patella, considered as a disc; measurements 
1 : 2, thus 

maximum height of patella X 100 
maximum breadth of patella 

Tibia 

I. MEASUREMENTS 
A. Lengths. 

1 Maximum length (spino-malleolar) measured with the inclusion of 
the intercondylar and malleolar spines, and hence possible on complete 
bones only. OB 

2 Maximum length (condylo- malleolar); measured with the calipers 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 131 

(pelvimeter) from the proximal articular surface (internal condyle) to the 
extreme end of the internal malleolus. PM 

3 Physiological length; measured with calipers (pelvimeter) be- 
tween articular surfaces and avoiding the projecting processes at either 
end; usually taken from the deepest point in the medial articular surface 
of the proximal end to the bottom of the hollow in the distal articular 
surface, just within the malleolus. PM 

Lehmann-Nitsche, in his investigation of prehistoric German graves 
(Reihen-Graber. 1895) uses the second maximum length, that is, the 
one without the intercondylar spine. Mollison (1908) uses the first and 
the third. Thus, for two Maori skeletons (right and left) he gives the 
following measurements : 

1 Spino-malleolar length 318 315 341 339 
3 Condylo-astragal length 294 294 312 311 
( = "physiological") 

B. Shaft. 

4 Dorso-ventral (sagittal) diameter } Taken just below the level of 

5 Medio-lateral (transverse) diameter J the tuberosity. SC or CR. 

6 Dorso-ventral (sagittal) diameter } Both taken at the level of the 

7 Medio-lateral (transverse) diameter t nutrient foramen, i.e., at about 

J the proximal third. SC or Cr. 

8 Dorso-ventral (sagittal) diameter 1 Both taken at the middle of 

9 Medio-lateral (transverse) diameter j the shaft. SC or Cr. 

10 Circumference of the shaft (middle) 

11 Least circumference of the shaft; this place will be found somewhere 
in the distal fourth of the bone, generally about 10 cm. above the point 
of the malleolus. TM 

12 Proximal epiphysial breadth; greatest medio-lateral breadth of the 
proximal end of the bone; the bicondylar breadth. SC 

13 Sagittal diameter of the distal epiphysis; taken dorso-ventrally 
across the distal end of the bone. SC or Cr. 



1 Platycnemic index (7 : 6) 



II. INDICES 

medio-lat. diam. (nutr. for) X 100 



dorso-ventral diam. (nutr. for) 

platycnemic below 63 

mesocnemic 63-70 

eurycnemic 70 + 

This index expresses the degree of platycnemy, or medio-lateral 
flatness, of a given tibia, a peculiarity which occurs sporadically in 
individuals of all races, and is practically constant in primitive peoples, 
and in ancient bones in general. Thus in Neolithic bones from French 



132 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



soil the range of the platycnemic indices runs from 61.5 to 65.4, while in 
the modern French the indices fall between 71 and 74. This may be a 



H 







a 

a 



.2 







o u 

2 .3 



a- 

a o3 

c3 9 



r-, WO 

5 d *< 



a- 
g 



^ 3 



a -a 

s 



M 0^) 

13 -^ a 

W gj 



^3 s "" a 

rt O o ., 

s ^s 



& 

o 



IH O I 

O bfi JS 

05 43 



cultural modification due to the resting posture, squatting vs. sitting in a 
chair, [cf. Note below]. 

, N least circumference of shaft X 100 
2. Cahber^mdex (11 : 1) - = 

maximum length 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 133 

III. ANGLES 

1 Retroversion angle 

2 Inclination angle 

3 Biaxial angles 

These angles are involved in the description of the noticeable bend 
which the upper end of the tibia makes with the remainder of the shaft, 
best seen when the bone is in profile. They are best measured with a 
protractor upon a projection on a sheet of paper, drawn from a bone 
placed horizontally above it, with the lateral (outer) aspect uppermost. 
Certain essential points and lines are first located on the bone and then 
projected upon the paper. 

The termini of the mechanical axis are first determined as follows, 
and marked on the bone with a pencil. The proximal point is the center 
of the deepest portion of the articular surface of the inner condyle, (B) 
and the distal one is in the middle of the very slight ridge that runs 
sagitally across the distal articular surface (A). The line drawn through 
these is the mechanical axis. The next is the determination of the plane 
of inclination of- the articular surface of the medial condyle, which is 
effected by placing a steel needle tangent to the -surface and in a dorso- 
ventral direction, and fixing it in the desired position with wax. (JK) 

When these preliminaries are done the bone is placed in a horizontal 
position above a large sheet of paper lying on the table, with the lateral 
(outer) surface facing directly upwards, and the essential points projected 
upon the paper, precisely beneath its position on the bone. The hold- 
ing of the bone may be effected by means of a clamp upon an iron retort 
stand, and the projections drawn by diagraph or parallelograph. Indeed, 
a fairly accurate projection may be made by placing the bone almost in 
contact with the paper, and then tracing around it with a pencil from which 
the wood upon one side has been whittled away. The pencil must be 
held perpendicularly. This need not be a complete contour tracing, 
but must include the accurate locating of the two points in the two artic- 
ular surfaces above mentioned, two points along the course of the steel 
needle, as far apart as convenient, and bits of the contour of the sides of 
the shaft in the vicinity of the nutrient foramen. 

When these points are located, connecting lines are drawn through 
and between these as follows: (see Fig. 38) 

(a) The mechanical axis; from the distal articular point, A, to 

the proximal one, B. 
(&) The line EF, directly across the shaft, about 2 cm below 

(distal to) the tuberosity nurti. This line, limited at both 

sides by the shaft contours, is bisected at C, which is the 

point sought, 
(c) The diaphysial axis; drawn from the point A, in common with 

the former axis, through the point C, coming out proximately 

wherever it may. (here, in the figure, at D) 



134 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

(d) The line of inclination of the inner condyle, which is that of 
the steel needle; found by connecting the two points already 
located in the projection. Naturally these may be placed 
anywhere along the needle, but the line is more accurate 
the farther apart they are. JK. 

The three angles above listed are thus constructed, and now have 
merely to be read off, thus: 

1 Retroversion angle; the angle JDG is measured for this, after 
which 90 are subtracted. This gives the value of the true 
retroversion angle, LMD, which is that between the axis 
of the retro verted proximal end (at right angles to the inclination 
of the face of the condyle) and the diaphysial axis. 

2 Inclination angle HLK, the angle of inclination of the face of 
the inner condyle, compared with that of the mechanical 
axis of the entire bone. Here also 90 are to be subtracted. 

3 Biaxial angle; that between the two long axes here used, 
mechanical and diaphysical, HAG. Its value is that of the 
difference between the two preceding angles, of reversion and 
inclination. Thus, in the diagram here shown, Fig. 38, the 
first is 25, the second 21, and the biaxial 4. 

The reason for using the plane of inclination of the proximal articu- 
lar surface is that it is at right angles to the axis of the short proximal part, 
the angle of retroversion of which is sought, and that it can be placed in 
a projection with considerable precision, while there is little to use in 
placing a definite axis to this short part. This large surface is, however, 
at right angles to the axis sought, and hence its angle may be measured 
and then reduced by 90. Should the investigator so desire, he might 
ascertain the axis of each part as he best can by estimation, fix steel 
needles to both, and measure the angle between them direct on the bone, 
as in similar cases. 

The value of this retroversion angle has been found to vary from in 
an ancient French skeleton to 30 in a California Indian, but is usually, 
in European skeletons, between 15 and 20. The diagram given here 
where the angle of retroversion is 25, is taken from an Australian. 

A considerable retroversion of the tibia is the usual fetal condition, 
even in Europeans, and is retained during infancy. In other words it is 
a universal human condition of human tibiae at birth, and is retained by 
certain of the lower races, but is generally outgrown by Europeans. 

4. Angle of torsion; as with such bones as the humerus and the femur, 
this angle is made by the lateral axes of the two ends of the bone, pro- 
jected upon each other in a bone held perpendicular to the paper. The 
proximal axis passes through the two condyles, at right angles to what 
is judged to be the sagittal plane, and the distal axis is drawn across the 
articular surface from the point of the inner malleolus to the opposite 
side, as in the case of the radius. Little has been done with this angle 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 135 

within recent years, but Miculicz in 1878 determined its usual value as 
lying between 5 and 20, with extremes of and 48. 

IV. SPECIAL FEATURES 

The profile of the articular surface of the lateral condyle, as seen from 
from the lateral side, has been found to vary markedly in certain human 
races, although it is a character which cannot be easily expressed by 
measurements. At one extreme of the series of outlines which this sur- 
face presents we find one that is almost a plane, or even slightly convex; 
the series then passes through the various stages of a slight or a consider- 
able convexity, becoming decidedly rounded at the other end of the series. 
This last is found among individual Andamanese, although it is by no 
means a general character. 

A modification at the distal end, which must be taken in connection 
with corresponding ones in the talus, which articulates with it. It con- 
sists of the extension of the articular surface forwards (i.e., ventrally) 
especially along the medial side, and is plainly a modification due to an 
extreme flexed position of the foot upon the leg, in the position of squat- 
ting. This is one of the most simple and easily noticed modifications 
correlated with posture, and should be studied in connection with several 
others noticed here. As expressed by one of the latest investigators on 
the subject, Havelock Charles, "The history of the influence of the chair 
upon the tibia has got to be written." Such studies of the correlation of 
the details of the bones and certain habitual actions and postures has not 
only a fundamental biological interest, but will allow the investigator to 
obtain numerous details concerning the daily life and activities of pre- 
historic peoples, written in definite, though as yet unknown characters 
upon their bones.* 

* The following papers deal directly with the influence of habitual posture upon 
the bones of the lower limbs, and the results are deduced mainly by comparison of 
Europeans with races like the Punjabi of India, who in a resting position squat upon 
their heels without coming in contact with the ground. Such a posture induces an 
extreme flexion at hip, knee and ankle, and naturally modifies the articular surfaces 
and other characters. 

THOMSON, A.: The influence of posture on the form of the articular surfaces of 
the Tibia and Astragalus in the different races of men and the higher apes. Journ. 
Anat. and Physiol, XXIII, N. S. Vol. Ill, 1889. 

THOMSON, A.: Additional note on the influence of posture, etc. Journ. Anat. 
and Physiol, XXIV, N. S. IV, 1890. 

CHARLES H. : The influence of function as exemplified in the morphology of the 
lower extremity of the Punjabi. Journ. Anat. and Physiol, XXVIII, N. S. XIII, 
1894. 

CHARLES H. : Morphological peculiarities in the Punjabi and their bearing on 
the question of the transmission of acquhed characters. Journ. Anat. and Physiol, 
XXVIII, 1894. 

LAMONT. J. C. ; Note on the influence of posture on the facets of the patella. 
Journ. Anat. and Physiol, Vol. XLIV, 1900. 



136 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

The Fibula 

I. MEASUREMENTS 

1. Absolute length; taken .with the osteometric board. Only to be 
taken in bones with the two ends perfect. OB. 

2. Circumference of the middle of the shaft. TM. 

3. Least circumference. TM. 

II. INDICES 

n T -r j /o \ least circumference X 100 

1. Caliber index (3:1)- r , . > ij-~ 

absolute length 

This bone has thus far been studied anthropometrically but very little 
and yet, as the bone is easily modified by the usual position of the leg, 
both in sitting, standing, and walking, it is very probable that striking 
differences, both morphological and cultural, will be revealed to future 
study. It is an excellent bone to recommend for future work. Thus, as 
a beginning, Martin has noticed its absolute straightness in Fuegians 
in contrast to the curve seen in Europeans, the concavity being forward. 
Klaatsch correlates a straight fibula with a large degree of tibial rever- 
sion, the two occurring together in legs the feet of which rest largely 
along their outer edges, as in apes and infants. The correction of the 
tibia, by which the proximal end is brought forward affects also the fibula, 
which is attached to it, bringing its proximal end also forward, and 
giving the entire bone a light curve. There is also some variation of the 
relative position of the two lower leg bones, as is seen by comparing on 
several tibiae the actual position of the facets for the fibula. Thus the 
fibula of the Spy skeletons was placed upon the tibia more as is that of 
the present-day Mongolian. The neandertaloid fibula seems to indicate 
that the foot came in this species in contact with the ground more along 
the outer edge than in modern man, and that the modern correction has 
tended to shorten the length and reduce the caliber, of the whole bone. 

The Foot Skeleton in General* 

As the human foot has been subject to much more profound modifica- 
tions than the hand in changing from the typical anthropoid condition, so 
is the study of its proportions of more importance. Many of its peculiar- 

* For the foot skeleton in general, cf . 

VOLKOV, TH.; Les variations squelettiques du pied chez les Primates et dans les 
races humaines. Bull, et Mem. de la Soc. d'Anthropol. de Paris. 1905. 

LAZARUS, S. P.; Zur Morphologic des Fuss-skelets. Morph. Jahrb., Bd. XXIV, 
1896. 

ADACHI, B. und MME. ADACHI: Die Fussknochen der Japaner. Mitt, der med. 
Fak. der Univ. Tokio. 1905. 

UHLBACH, R.; Messungen an Hand-und Fuss-skelet von Hottentotten. Zeitschr. 
Morph. und Anthropol., Bd. XVI, Jan., 1914. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT or THE BONES 137 

ities are due to morphological causes; others to cultural ones. The 
first considers the gradual shaping of an arboreal foot from a climbing, 
prehensile organ, to a firm platform for walking upon the ground, changes 
which are largely due to the shaping of the peroneal muscles for lifting 
the outer edge, and in part also to the giving up by the first digit of the 
most of its prehensile function, and the gaining of greater size and strength 
for the application of force in a new direction. The second, or cultural, 
changes, are the result in part of the introduction of new methods of 
sitting, standing, and walking, and in part modified by the introduction 
of various types of shoes and sandals. 

Aside from the study of the foot as a whole, several of the separate 
bones deserve special treatment, especially the talus, which forms the 
main articulation with the tibia, and is thus concerned in all general 
acts, such as walking. Next in importance come calcaneus and navi- 
culare, which have already been the subject of anthropometric research, 
while the remaining bones have been studied mainly in relation to the 
shape of the entire foot. These three specially named bones are here 
treated in detail, after which the foot is considered as a whole. 

Talus 

Orientation. The bone is to be first placed on a table, with the 
trochlear surface uppermost, and with the navicular head towards the 
observer. The bottom of the trochlear groove, which is almost a straight 
line may be marked with a pencil, and gives approximately the location of 
the sagittal axis (SS in Fig. 38). The transverse axis (TT) runs across 
the middle of the trochlea, at right angles to the sagittal axis. As the 
navicular head forms, with its neck, a distinct portion of the bone, the 
collum tali, it may be considered to have its own axis, as drawn by the 
eye through the middle of this portion, beginning at the center of the 

HASEBE, K.; Ueber die Haufigkeit der Coalescenzen, etc., der Fussknochen der 
Japaner. Zeitschr. Morph. und AnthropoL, Bd. XIV, 1912. 

For separate tarsal bones, cf . 

REICHER, M.; Beitrag zur Anthropologie des Calcaneus. Archiv. f. AnthropoL, 
N. F. Bd. XII, 1913, pp. 108-133. 

SEWELL, SEYMOUR; A study of the astragalus. Journ, Anat. and Physiol. (Engl.) 
Apr., 1904; July, 1904; Oct., 1904; Jan., 1906. 

MANNERS-SMITH; A study of the navicular in the human and anthropoid foot. 
Journ. Anat. and Physiol. (Engl.), 1907. 

MANNERS-SMITH; A study of the Cuboid and Os peroneum in the human foot. 
Journ. Anal, and Physiol. (Engl.), 1907. 

For relations of foot bones in the same foot, cf . 

PFITZNER, W.; Beitragen zur Kenntniss des menschlichen Extremitaten skelets. 
A series of papers in the Morphol. Arbeiten, especially, No. VII, Die Variationen im 
Aufbau des Fuss-skelets, Bd. VI, 1896. This paper presents a summary of the details 
obtained from more than a thousand human feet, personally prepared by the author 
in order to prevent any possible confusion. Cf . also the work of this author, in the 
same series, on the hand. 

VIRCHOW, H.; Die Aufstellung des Fuss-skelet. Anat. Am., Bd. VII, 1892. 



138 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

articulation with the navicular bone. This axis (ac) makes an important 
angle with the sagittal axis, the angle of the collum (acS). Oriented in 
this way the talus presents the usual six aspects, or norms, of which the 
most important are (1) the norma trochlearis, (Fig. 33) ; (2) the norma 
basilaris, which is in contact with the calcaneus (Fig. 39) ; and (3) the 
norma frontalis, or distalis, in contact with the naviculare (Fig. 40). 

I. MEASUREMENTS 

1 . Length ; greatest length obtainable between the bottom of the sulcus 
for the tendon of Flexor hallucis longus and the fuithest point on the sur- 
face of the navicular head; the line ab in Fig. 39. SC or Cr. 

2. Breadth; from the furthest lateral point of the lateral process, in 
the transverse axis, to the opposite side (Te in Fig. 39). SC or Cr. 

3. Height: the distance of the highest point in the trochlear groove 
from the table on which the bone rests (cd in Fig. 40). This measure- 
ment is best taken by holding the bone upon a glass plate of known thick- 
ness, say one millimeter, measuring the distance from the upper point 
through to the lower surface of the glass plate, and then subtracting the 
thickness of the glass. SC or Cr. 

4. Length of the trochlea; measured with the slide compass along the 
sagittal axis, between the borders of the articular surface. SC. 

5. Breadth of the trochlea; measured with the slide compass along the 
transverse axis, between the borders of the articular surface. SC. 

6. Length of the head (caput tali); total length of the articular sur- 
face covering the head, using as termini the ends of the longitudinal axis 
of this surface. SC. 

7. Breadth of the head (caput tali) ; total breadth of this surface, taken 
at right angles to the above. SC. 

8. Length of the posterior articular surf ace for the calcaneus (ab in Fig. 
39); taken along the longitudinal axis of this surface SC. 

9. Breadth of the posterior articular surface for the calcaneus (cd in 
Fig. 39); taken at right angles to the previous measurement. SC. 



1. Length-breadth index (2 : 1) 



II. INDICES 

breadth of the bone X 100 



length of the bone 



or 41 i n i to i\ height of the bone X 100 

2. Length-height index (3:1)- n FTI r~ 

length of the bone 

7 , 7 ,, . , , A , x length of trochlea X 100 

3. Trocheal length index (4 : 1) - r 5-71 r 

length of the bone 

4. Length-breadth index of posterior calcanear articulation (9 : 8) 

breadth of the post, calcan. artic. X 100 
length of the same 

jti. j f 4-L T, j fn a\ breadth of the head X 100 

5. Length breadth index of the head (7 : 6) - -. 7 =- = = 

length of the head 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



139 



III. ANGLES 



1 Angle of inclination of the collum tali; the angle between the axis 
of the neck and the sagittal axis of the bone (as in Fig. 38). 

2. Angle of torsion of the head; the angle between the longitudinal axis 



T 





FIG. 39. (After Seymour Sewell) . 



of the headjjand the plane placed tangent to the highest points of the 
trochlea (efg in Fig. 40). 

3. Angle of inclination of the posterior articular facet; this is the angle 
formed between the sagittal axis of the bone (i.e., the line of the trochlear 




FIG. 40. (After Seymour Sewell). 

trough) and the long axis of the posterior facet (SS, Fig. 38 with ab, 
Fig. 39). As these two are not only in different planes, but also upon 
opposite sides of the bone it is clear that the angle must be formed by 
projection, which is accomplished in a practical way as follows. Steel 



140 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



needles are applied to the surface of the bone, the one defining the longi- 
tudinal axis of the trochlea, the other that of the posterior facet; a third 
one is then placed upon the trochlear surface, crossing the needle which 
defines the axis, and placed parallel to the needle upon the posterior 
facet, which can be done by the help of the projecting endso this needle. 
The angle thus formed by the intersection of the two needles in contact 
may then be read off by the transparent protractor. 

Calcaneus 

The technique of the anthropometry of the calcaneus, as given here, 
consists of the more important of the measurements proposed by Reicher, 
in 1913 (Archiv fur Anthropol. XII, pp. 108-133). This work was done 
at Zurich under Martin, who has also incorporated Reicher's results in 
his text book (1914). 

I. MEASUREMENTS 

1. Maximum length; the length of the longitudinal axis of the bone, 
which runs through the most backward projecting point of the tuber 




FIG. 41. Right calcaneus, medial view, showing lines for measurement. (After Reicher.) 

calcanei, and the middle of the upper edge of the articular surface for 
the cuboid. There is a slight difference between this measure, taken 
directly, as done by Volkov (1904), and by Reicher and Martin, who take 
it projectively, dropping the two points down upon the surface upon 
which the bone lies (line db in Fig. 41, dropped from a' and b' or d). The 
line a'd would be oblique, and hence a little longer than ab. Reicher 
mentions also what is really the physiologica, or working, length, which 
ends anteriorly in the center of the cuboid articulation, i.e., the line cd 
in Fig. 41. SC. 

2. Breadth across the sustentaculum; this is taken across the sustenta- 
culum to the most lateral point in the border of the posterior articular 
surface for the talus, along a line at right angles to the longitudinal axis 
and upon a horizontal plane, perpendicular to the sagittal plane, that is 
involving a double projection (line ab in Fig. 42). This measurement is 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



141 



not really difficult to take, as the two arms of the slide compass, as long, 
parallel rods, may be placed parallel with the longitudinal axis of the 
bone, and in an approximately horizontal plane. SC. 

3. Least breadth of the body of the bone; this is taken, with the slide 
compass held transversely to the longitudinal axis and enclosing the 
narrowed portion of the bone, just anterior to the tuber calcanei, and 
immediately behind the posterior articular surface for the talus. SC. 

4. Height of the body; this is the distance from the bottom of the slight 
depression between the raised upper 

edge of the tuber calcanei and a similar 
one at the back of the posterior articular 
facet for the talus, and the substratum 
upon which the bone is resting. It is 
best measured, as in the case of the talus, 
by holding the bone in the proper po- 
sition upon a glass plate of known 
thickness, taking the measure through 
both glass and bone, and then sub- 
tracting the thickness of the glass plate 
(see measurement 3 under Talus; Fig. 
40). The measurement, without the 
glass plate, is shown as the line ef in 
Fig. 41. Cr or SC. 

5. Length of the body of the calcaneus 
( = jthe effective length of the heel); this 
is the length, taken along the longi- 
tudinal axis, from the most backward 
projecting point on the tuber to the 
most anterior point of the anterior 
margin of the posterior articular surface 
for the talus (line cc' of Fig. 42). SC. 

6. Breadth of the sustentaculum; taken from the most laterally project- 
ing point of the sustentaculum, at right angles to the longitudinal axis, 
to the medial edge of the sulcus for the tendon of the Flexor hallucis lon- 
gus. This is a very uncertain measure, unless the line is taken exactly 
at right angles to the longitudinal axes, as the medial limit is placed upon 
an oblique line, which changes its relationship to the lateral one at every 
point. 

7. Height of the tuber calcanei; taken sagittally through the tuber from 
the highest point above to the lowest point in the medial tuberal process, 
as far anteriorly as possible. SC or Cr. 

8. Breadth of the tuber calcanei; taken across the tuber, at right angles 
to the previous one; the maximum breadth. SC or Cr. 

9 and 10. Length and Breadth respectively of the posterior articular 
surface for the talus. (Fig. 42, ef and gh). SC. 




FIG. 
above, 
ment. 



42. Right calcaneus, from 
showing lines for measure- 
(Afler Reicher.) 



142 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

II. INDICES 

, breadth across sustentaoulum X 100 

1. Length-breadth index A (2 : 1) - -. 

maximum length 

_ T , , . , . . least breadth of body X 100 

2. Lenqth-breadth index R (3 : 1) -- : - \ *rr - 

maximum length 

/ a i, i* j />i i\ height of body X 100 

3. Length-height index (4:1) - = 

maximum length 

,L j in 1N length of the body (heel length) X 100 
4.- Calcar length index (5 : 1) - r- = *-: 

maximum length 

rx breadth of the tuber X 100 

5. T liberal index (8:7) - rr f ., 

length of the tuber 

6. Index of the posterior articular facet (10 : 9)* 

breadth of post. art. facet X 100 



length of post.' art. facet 

III. ANGLES 

1. Angle of inclination of the posterior articular facet; this is the angle 
between the longitudinal axis of the facet in question and that of the 
bone as a whole (cd and ef of Fig. 42). It is taken by fixing steel needles 
in the proper places and reading the result by means of a protractor. 

2. Talo-calcaneus angle; this is an angle involving the relative position 
of the two bones considered, and differences in it are indicative of differ- 
ences in the habitual position, and consequently in the use, of the foot. 
It is really the angle formed between the longitudinal axis of the calcaneus 
and that of the talus, through the trochlear trough, but is best obtained 
by subtracting the angle of inclination of the posterior facet of the talus 
from the corresponding angle on the calaneus (angle 3 of the talus from 
angle 1 of the calcaneus) . This procedure assumes a complete coincidence 
of the two posterior facets with their longitudinal axes, from which the 
varying longitudinal axes of the two bones are laid off at definite though 
different angles. The difference between these two, as measured from the 
same plane, is the value of the angle sought. 

The Other Tarsal Bones. 

The remaining tarsal bones, especially cuboid and naviculare, have 
been subjected to certain special anthropometrical measurements, upon 
lines similar to those already laid down for the others. These consist 
of lengths, breadths, and heights, the axes of important articular facets, 
also indices expressing the relationships of these. The two first-men- 

* Besides the above there have been used (1) the index between the length of the 
sustentaculum and the breadth of the entire region, and (2) the length and breadth 
of the cuboid articulation, with the index between them. The first would seem to 
require an almost impossible accuracy in the length measurement; the latter is too 
uncertain in many ways. However, these results may be consulted in the original 
paper, above referred to. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 



143 



tioned bones have been considered by Manners-Smith in the Journal of 
Anatomy (EngL), 1907-1908, to which the reader is referred. 

The Metacarpals and Phalanges. 

In these bones, as in the hand, the most obvious measurements are, 
first of all, the total lengths of the separate bones, and then the breadths 
of the two epiphyses and the middle of the shaft, also certain of the girths 
especially the least circumferences. For these itis obvious that some very 



c 





FIG. 43. Torsion of the calcaneus, in various Primates. (From Loth, after Volkov.) 

A. Chimpanzee. 

B. Gorilla. 

C. Australian. 

D. European. 

delicate method of measurement should be devised, such as, for example, 
the use of fine wire, as employed by dentists in getting the caliber of a 
tooth. 

As for indices, aside from those derived from the measurements of 
single bones there are obviously collective indices obtained by adding 
certain similar measurements of a series of bones, for example, the entire 
breadth of the foot at a given point might be represented by adding the 



144 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

breadths of the proximal epiphyses of all five metatarsals, and this 
combined breadth might very well be compared with a combined length, 
such as those of the metatarsal, first, and second phalanges of digit 
I. Thus the two following indices have been suggested and employed to 
some extent. 

breadth of metatarsals I-V (proximal) X 100 



Foot index 



length of digit I; metatarsal; phal. 1; phal 2 
breadth of metatarsals I-V (proximal) X 100 



Plantar index . 

length of metatarsal I 

As in the case of the knee, so the ankle joint, with the reciprocal 
action of the various articular facets of the several bones involved is 
of great importance in the study of habitual posture, and possible racial 
differences due to environment and habit (see above, under Patella, 
Femur, Tibia, etc). A noticeable angle, as seen from behind, is that 
first pointed out by Volkov (1905) [Fig. 43]. For measuring this the 
entire set of the bones involved must be accurately placed together as in 
life, a feat impossible of accomplishment save by special treatment of 
single specimens,* but the results show beautifully that the human foot 
has descended from one whose sole was turned obliquely inwards, and 
that certain of the races yet living have not progressed as far as the 
Europeans in rectifying this. The four figures presented show the foot 
skeleton in a natural position as seen from directly behind. The longer 
axis of the tuber calcanei is indicated in all cases by a line, the inclination 
of which to the long axis of the leg shows the habitual foot position. The 
plane of the sole is in all cases set at right angles to this line. The tuberal 
axis is thus in the chimpanzee (A) seen to be set at about 30 from the 
perpendicular, in the gorilla (B) somewhat less; in the Veddahs from 
Ceylon (C) the line approaches the perpendicular, and in the European 
(D) this point is nearly attained. 

The changes shown here phylogenetically appear in succession in the 
first two or three years of life in the human infant, who passes through 
all the stages in the gradual straightening of the feet for erect walking, 
from the extreme simian position at first to the characteristic adult 
condition. The use of both the feet and legs, as well as their frequent 
postures, give many an indication of early conditions, when these mem- 
bers possessed a more prehensile function than in the recent species. 

Intermembral Indices 

Intermembral indices, as used thus far, concern the lengths of the 
four principal lengths of arm and leg, as represented by humerus, radius, 
femur, and tibia, and express the various relations shown between them 
by the use of a certain one as a standard. The particular lengths recom- 
mended in this work are the following:- 

*See H. VIBCHOW: Die Aufstellung der Fuss-skelets, in Anat. Am., VII, 1892. 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OP THE BONES 145 

Humerus; Greatest length (1), as taken with the osteometric board 
OB. 

Radius; Physiological length (2); from the center of the capitellar 
depression proximally to the center of the slight ridge which crosses the 
distal articulation transversely. Cr or SC 

Femur; Physiological length (2) ; as taken with the osteometric board, 
and with the two condyles in contact with the transverse plane. OB. 

Tibia; Physiological length (3); from the deepest point in the arti- 
cular surface of the medial condyle to the deepest point in the distal 
articular surface just within the medial malleolus. Cr or SC. 

The following indices are in common use :- 

, . , T . , radius length X 100 

1 Radio-humeral index ? -, rr 

humerus length 

This is an old index, formerly much used notably by Broca in 1862, 
and by Turner in 1886. In both cases the greatest lengths were used, 
and the arms (radii) were classified as follows : 

Index below 75 brachycercic 

75 to 79 mesaticercic (mesocercic) 

Index above 79 dolichocercic 

Europeans, Lapps, Eskimo, and Bushmen are brachycercic; Australians, 
Negroes, Hindu, Chinese, and American Indians, except Fuegians, are 
mesocercic; Andamanese, Negritoes, and Fuegians, are doliehocercic. 

o m-i- f t j tibial length X 100 

2 Tibio-femoral index ^ 

femoral length 

This index corresponds exactly to the previous one, being for the leg 
what that is for the arm, i.e., a proportionate measure for the distal 
joint. 

These indices are classified into two groups by the boundary number 83, 
all indices below this being brachycnemic; all above it dolichocnemic. 
To the first belong the Europeans, Chinese, Tatars, Lapps, and Eskimo; 
to the latter the Australians, Negroes, Andamanese, and American 
Indians. 

, T . , length of humerus + radius X 100 

3 Intermembral index - -r T~i ~Tn^ 

length of femur + tibia 

For this, both Turner (1886) and Martin (1893) used the maximum 
lengths of all the bones concerned, as ascertained by the osteometric 
board, but the differences between these results and those obtained by 
the more exact physiological lengths are but slight, and the data thus 
obtained may be considered as practically correct. For comparisons 
involving both bones and the living, however, the physiological lengths 
should be used, as the two may then be closely compared, or even used 
interchangeably. The most important results of the two investigators 
10 



146 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



mentioned are as follows, remembering that, unless there is much dis- 
parity in leg-length, a low index means a short arm, and vice versa. 



Name of race 


males 


females 


both together 


Australians (T) . 






approx. 68 


Australians (M) . . . . 


68.7 






Negroes (M) 


68.3 


68.1 


68.2 


Negroes (T) 






69.0 


Andamanese (T) 






69.0 


Fuegians (M 


69.4 


70.8 


70.1* 


Europeans (Alsace) (M) 


70 4 


69.3 


69.7 











* The total length in millimeters of Fuegian limbs (bones) averaged at 758 mm. 
for males, and 709 mm. for females, according to Martin. These were taken from a 
large number of individual bones. 

length of humerus X 100 
4. Humero-femoral index - T .-^ 

length of femur 

This comparison gives the relative length of the humerus, when compared 
with the thigh. Martin gives the following values:- 



Name of race 


males 


females 


both sexes 


Fuegians 


69.8 


72.9 


71.3 


Negroes 


72.4 


71.8 


72.2 


Europeans, Alsace 


69.0 


68.8 


68.9 











The indices that follow have been seldom used, and some of them may 
even have never been practically employed. They are placed here 
mainly to show some of the many possible combinations, since any one of 
these or similar ones may at any time be found to clearly present a certain 
new relationship. To guard against an excessive employment of indices, 
one should always have in mind exactly what real relationship a given 
index is intended to show, and never use one (in published writings) 
merely for the reason that it has never been employed before. 



5. Tibio-radial index 



length of radius X 100 



length of tibia 

. , length of humerus X 100 
6. Humero-skelic index , rr~ ... . - 

lengths of femur -f- tibia 

length of radius X 100 



7. Radio-skelic index 



lengths of femur + tibia 



length of femur X 100 
r emero-bracnial index , 



9. Tibio-brachial index 



lengths of humerus + radius 

length of tibia X 100 
lengths of humerus + radius 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 147 

Relation of the Lengths of Limb-bones to The Total Stature of the 
Same Individual, when Living 

The relationship of the lengths of the long bones to the stature of the 
individual, if possible to establish, would be a priori of immense import- 
ance in the constantly recurring problem of estimating the height, during 
life, of individuals known only be excavated bones. This is a ways 
the first question of people in general, who happen to be present when 
excavations are going on, and it is a curious fact in popular psychology 
that heights calculated by unprofessional people are always excessive, 
sometimes ridiculously so. It would seem of much practical utility, 
then, to ascertain through a series of measurements the usual ratios of 
the separate long bone lengths to the total height, thus obtaining a 
coefficient, by which a given long bone may be measured to get the ex- 
pected, or usual, bodily stature. 

With such a purpose in mind Rollet, in 1889, took the total height 
measures of a series of dead bodies, 24 males and 25 females, between the 
ages of 20 and 65, in order to eliminate both senile and infantile propor- 
tions, after which he had the bones prepared and available for measure- 
ment. His results he formulated as follows: 

Male. Femur (greatest length) multiplied by 3.66 = Total height 
Female. Femur (greatest length) multiplied by 3.71 = Total height 
Male. Humerus (greatest length) multiplied by 5.6 = Total height 
Female. Humerus (greatest length) multiplied by 5.22 = Total height 

These figures were, however, reliable only for people of about the 
medium height, 1650 mm. also, owing to the well-known differences of 
proportions in different human races, these coefficients would apply with 
any certainty only to Frenchmen, or at best to members of the white 
race. 

The necessity of a sliding scale of coefficients for different sizes 
of individuals was taken into account later of by Manouvrier (1892) 
who calculated a series of different coefficients for bones of different 
sizes. Thus, for male femora, instead of using as coefficient the single 
"3.66" of Rollet, he used for a femur of 422 mm, the coefficient 3.85, 
for one of 446 mm, a coefficient of 3.73, and for one of 475 mm. a coefficient 
of 3.61, and so on.* He finally represented a set of coefficients for lengths 
of every few millimeters for the six long limb bones in each sex, and 
worked out the resultant stature in each case, from which a desired 
stature may be easily obtained. His table is as follows: 

* MANOTJVRIER: Le determination de la taille apres les grands os des membres'. 
Mem. de la Soc. d'Anthropol. de Paris. 1893. 



148 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



MALES 



Fibula 
mm. 


Tibia 
mm. 


Femur 
mm. 


Humerus 
mm. 


Radius 
mm. 


Ulna 
mm. 


Total height 
mm. 


318 


319 


392 


295 


213 


227 


1.53.0 


323 


324 


398 


298 


216 


231 


1.55.2 


328 


330 


404 


302 


219 


235 


1.57.1 


333 


335 


410 


306 


222 


239 


1.59.0 


338 


340 


416 


309 


225 


243 


1.60.5 


344 


346 


422 


313 


229 


246 


1.62.5 


349 


351 


428 


316 


232 


249 


1.63.4 


353 


357 


434 


320 


236 


253 


1.64.4 


358 


362 


440 


324 


239 


257 


1.65.4 


363 


368 


446 


328 


243 


260 


1.66.6 


368 


373 


453 


332 


246 


263 


1.67.7 


373 


378 


460 


336 


249 


266 


1.68.6 


378 


383 


467 


340 


252 


270 


1.69.7 


383 


389 


475 


344 


255 


273 


1.71.6 


388 


394 


482 


348 


258 


276 


1.73.0 


393 


400 


490 


352 


261 


280 


1.75.4 


398 


405 


497 


356 


264 


283 


1.76.7 


403 


410 


504 


360 


267 


287 


1.78.5 


408 


415 


512 


364 


270 


290 


1.81.2 


413 


420 


519 


368 


273 


293 


1.83.0 



FEMALES 



Fibula 

mm. 


Tibia 
mm. 


Femur 
mm. 


Humerus 
mm 


Radius 
mm. 


Ulna 
mm. i 


Total height 
mm. 


283 


284 


363 


263 


193 


203 


1.40.0 


288 


289 


368 


266 


195 


206 


1.42.0 


293 


294 


373 


. 270 


197 


209 


1.44.0 


298 


299 


378 


273 


199 


212 


1.45.5 


303 


304 


383 


276 


201 


215 




307 


309 


388 


279 


203 


217 


1.48.8 


311 


314 


393 


282 


205 


219 


1.49.7 


316 


319 


398 


285 


207 


222 


1.51.3 


320 


324 


403 


289 


209 


225 


1.52.8 


325 


329 


408 


292 


211 


228 


1.54.3 


330 


334 


415 


297 


214 


231 


1.55.6 


336 


340 


422 


302 


218 


235 


1.56.8 


341 


346 


429 


307 


222 


239 


1.58.2 


346 


352 


436 


313 


226 


243 


1.59.5 


351 


358 


443 


318 


230 


247 


1.61.2 


356 


364 


450 


324 


234 


251 


1.63.0 


361 


370 


457 


329 


238 


254 


1.65.0 


366 


376 


464 


334 


242 


258 


1.67.0 



To use this Table the following rules are to be observed: 

1. Determine the sex of the skeleton, if possible. 

2. Take the length measurements of the six long bones given in the 
Table, or of as many of them as are in good condition. The femur is 



OSTEOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BONES 149 

measured "in the oblique position", i.e., physiological length; the tibia 
uses the medial condyle at the proximal end, but includes the entire 
malleolus distally, a departure from the rule laid down above; the other 
bones are used in greatest length. 

3. If the bones are dry, and deprived of cartilage, add 2 mm. to the 
length measurement of each bone. 

4. Find the nearest length for each bone separately, and set down the 
total stature expected. Lengths that fall in between those given will 
furnish their total stature through a simple calculation. 

5. The series of total statures thus obtained should be averaged up in 
the usual way, by adding all together and dividing by the number of 
bones used. The resulting average is that of the cadaveral height. 

6. The living height is considered to be 20 mm., less than the cadaveral 
height. 

7. If you have the corresponding bones of the two sides, measure 
both, and use the average of the two for the measurement. If you possess 
the radius and tibia, the ulna and fibula need not be measured. 

Although the values of this Table have been deduced from French 
bodies, and may not be wholly applicable beyond the confines of these 
and related peoples, still the work of Rahon* who applied them to a very 
large number of ancient men, in part absolutely prehistoric, possesses 
considerable interest. Some of his results follow: 

mm 

Neandertal skeleton 1613 

Spy skeletons 1590 

Skeleton, La Madelaine 1665 

Old man of Cro Magnon 1716 

Mentone skeleton, 1732 

Dolmen of "Cave-aux Fees" males, 1600; females, 1470 

Dolmen of "Bray-sur Seine males, 1600; females, 1492 

Merovingian Period, one skeleton of 

of each sex males, 1771; females, 1579 

Burgundians, 5th. Century males, 1646; females, 1518 

Carolingian Period males, 1674; females, 1585 

In all these the height given is that for the living. It is to be noted 
that the two first are now accredited to a distinct species, making their 
inclusion within this table quite inapplicable. The rest seem fairly 
reliable. 

* RAHON, J. ; La taille d'apr6s les ossements prdhistoriques. Rev. EC. Anthropol. 
T. 2, p. 234 +. 1892. 

Recherches sur les ossements humains anciens et prehistoriques en vue de la 
reconstitution de la taille. Mem. Soc. Anthropol. Paris, Series 2. T. 4, pp. 
403 + 1893. 



PART II 

Somatometry; the Measurement of the Body 



LANDMARKS 

[The list here given is taken from Martin (Lehrbuch, 1914, pp. 120-131) but those 
of the head and face are given first, and the arrangement is alphabetical instead of 
topographical. The abbreviations are the same, and as they do not repeat any of 
those in use upon the skeleton, save in those cases where the two correspond, it is 
hoped that they will come into common use, much as in the case of the abbreviations 
of the elements in Chemistry]. 

(a) Landmarks upon the head and face. 

The most external point on the wing of the nose. 

* 

Outer corner of the mouth; lateral terminus of the oral 
slit. . 

Outer corner of the palpebral opening. 

Inner corner of the palpebral opening, medial to the 

caruncula lacrimalis. 



alare (al) 
bregma (b) 
cheilion (ch). 

crinion (see trichion) 
ectocanthion (ex) 
endocanthion (en) 

euryon (eu) 

f rontotemporale . (ft) 

glabella(g) 

gnathion (gn) 

gonion (go) 

inion (i) 

labrale inferius (li) 

labrale superius (Is) * 



mastoidale (ms) 
mesosternale (mst) 



*(here taken as the occipital protuberance). 

The median point in the lower boundary of the mucous 

surface of the lower lip. 

The median point of a line drawn across the boundary of 

the mucous surface of the upper lip. tangent to the 

curves. 

* 

The point in the sternal median line crossed by the 
transverse line connecting the middle of the two 4th 
costal cartilages, at the insertion into the sternum. The 
determination of this cartilage is facilitated by first lo- 
cating the 2d, which noticeably projects a little above the 
others. 

* Points followed by an * are the same as those of like name upon the bony surface 
of the skull, save that here the point designated is upon the external surface of the 
skin, exactly above the one on the skull, and differs from this latter by the thickness 
of the soft parts. When used as the termini of lines parallel to the surface, the meas- 
uements of both skull and face are the same, when the thickness of the soft parts 
is included in the line measured, the two measurements differ by this amount. Thus, 
compare the least frontal breadth, where the measurements of skull and face are the 
same, with the greatest head breadth, where the breadth in the living includes the 
soft parts upon each end of the line, and is larger by so much than in the skull. 

151 



152 

metopion (m) 

nasion (n) 
ophryon (on) 



opisthocranion (op) 
orbitale (or) 
otobasion inferius (obi) 

otobasion superius (obs) 

postaurale (pa) 
preaurale (pra) 



pronasale (prn) 
prosthion (pr) 

stomion (sto) 
subaurale (sba) 
subnasale (sn) 

superaurale (sa) 
tragion (t) 
trichion (tr) 



tuberculare (tu) 
vertex (v) 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



zygion (zy) 



acromioji (a) 



The median point of the line connecting the two frontal 

eminences. 

* 

Median point of the line drawn tangent to the upper 
border of the eyebrows. 



Point where the ear attaches to the side of the head, 
above. 

Point where the" ear attaches to the side of the head, 
below. 

The most posterior point in the free margin of the ear. 
The point in the line connecting the two otobasia, and 
crossing the isthmus of attachment of the ear to the 
head, which is directly opposite the postaurale. This 
line is at right angles to the ear length line. 
The point of the nose. 

"Owing to the gum this point lies about 1 mm. lower 
than on the bare skull. 

Median point of the oral slit, when mouth is closed 
naturally. 

The lowest point in the free margin of the ear. This is 
also the lowest point of the lobe. 

Point of the angle between the septum and the surface of 
the upper lip. 

The highest point in the free margin of the ear. 
The notch just above the tragus of the ear. 
The median point in the line of the hair. To be used 
only when the area covered by the hair is normal; not 
to be used when the hair has begun to retreat in incipient 
baldness. 

Darwin's point on the ear. 

Highest point of the head, when standing erect, or sit- 
ting as straight as possible. 



acropodion (ap) 
cervicale (c) 



(6) Landmarks upon the trunk and limbs 

The most lateral point of the acromion process, felt 
through the skin; found by tracing along the spine of the 
scapula, with index and middle fingers, or by following 
the shaft of the clavicle, or by laying the middle finger 
across the shoulder at the top, and gradually down over 
the side until it drops over the edge of the bone. This 
is a difficult point to learn to find, and should be practiced 
in connection with an articulated skeleton. One should 
first become familiar with all the superficial parts of 
scapula, clavicle and proximal end of humerus, and 
learn to locate and recognize them in the living by pal- 
pation, in the various positions assumed. 
The most forward projecting point of the foot whether, 
upon the first or second toe. 

Free end of the spine of the seventh cervical vertebra; 
the vertebra prominens. 



SOMATOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BODY 



153 



dactylion (da) 
iliocristale (ic) 

iliospinale anterius (is) 

iliospinale posterius (is.p) 
labiomentale (lab.m) 



lumbale Qu) 



mesosternale (mst) 



metacarpale laterale (ml) 
metacarpale mediale (mm) 

metatarsale laterale (mt.l) 
metatarsale mediale (mt.m) 

omphalion (om) 
phalangion (ph) 

pternion (pte) 



The distal point of a finger, designated as da I; da II; 
etc. When not specified, the one referred to is the point 
of the middle finger, da III, which is used in the series o 
distances from the floor. As thus used the arm hangs 
at the side in the most natural position. 
The most lateral point of the iliac crest; feel from below 
upwards with the fingers laid flat and horizontal (when 
the subject is standing), and parallel to the crest. The 
point sought is found where the surface of the bone 
passes over from the side to the top of the crest. 
This is the anterior ventral spine of the crest of the ilium 
(old terminology; anterior superior spine) and is best 
found by placing the finger along the crest and feeling 
for it with the thumb. 

This is the anterior dorsal spine (posterior superior) at 
the dorsal end of the crest. 

Median point in the transverse groove in the chin at the 
point where the lower lip is attached, the sulcus labio- 
mentalis. 

Find about as in the previous case. It is usually char- 
acterized upon the surface by the presence of a little 
dimple. 

The point of the spinous process of the fifth lumbar 
vertebra. This is difficult to locate and some anthro- 
pometrists do not use it because of this. Others recom- 
mend counting (and perhaps marking all the spines from 
the seventh cervical down, with the body bowed for- 
wards. The lumbale can be marked when in this bowed 
position, and the point will then be present after the 
body is erect again. 

The median point, on the sternum, of the line which 
connects the sterno-costal articulation of the two 4th 
ribs. The cartilages are to be counted by running the 
finger down the sides of the sternum, where they are 
superficial. Corresponding to the break between the 
manubrium and the mesoternum, where the 2nd costal 
cartilages are inserted, these cartilages project forwards 
a little, projecting beyond their neighbors. The second 
pair below this is the one sought. 

The most projecting point on the free outer margin of 
the hand, at the level of the basal joint (metacarpo- 
phalangeal articulation) of the little finger. 
The most projecting point on the free inner margin of 
the hand, at the level of the basal joint (metacarpo- 
phalangeal articulation) of the index. 
The most laterally projecting point of the metatarso- 
phalangeal articulation of the little toe. 
The most medially projecting point of the metatarso- 
phalangeal articulation of the great toe (hattux). 
Middle point of the umbilicus; an unstable point. 
The most proximal point of the basal phalanx of a finger; 
designated as I, II, III, etc. 

The most posterior point of the heel, when the foot is 
sustaining the weight of the body 



154 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



radiale (r) 



spherion (sph) 
stylion (sty) 



suprasternale (sst) 



symphysion (sy) 



thelion (th) 
tibiale (ti) 



trochanterion (tro) 



The plane of the top of the capitellum of the radius. 
In the hanging arm it is found in the bottom of the con- 
spicuous groove or dimple of the elbow. 
The lowest point of the inner malleolus. 
The distal margin of the styloid process of the radius 
where it appears superficially upon the medial side of the 
wrist. In the hanging arm seize the wrist and palpate 
downwards over the surface of the process with the 
thumb. The exact end of the process may be felt with 
the thumb nail. 

The middle of the suprasternal notch, in the upper 
margin of the sternum. This margin is covered simply 
by a thin layer of skin, and the point in question may be 
readily located with precision. 

Middle point in the upper border of the pubic arch, 
at the symphysis. This is usually at about the level 
of the upper border of the pubic hair, but as there is some 
variation in this it is not safe to rely wholly upon this 
when precision is wanted. Involuntary shrinking on 
the part of the subject, due to the tickling reactions, are 
obviated entirely by approaching the point from the side 
with the flat of the hand, and using the end of the finger 
only when the upper border of the pubic arch is reached. 
With intelligent subjects they may often be entrusted to 
find the proper point themselves, especially when an 
articulated skeleton stands beside the operator and 
subject, a condition which should never be neglected. 
This point is of vital importance in all studies of pro- 
portions, and ought always to be taken, and with as great 
precision as is practical. 

The middle point of the nipple. To be taken only 
in men, children, and in women with no perceptible 
tendency for the breasts to sag downwards. 
The medial separation between femur and tibia, at 
the medial glenoid margin of the latter; the point is 
difficult to find in persons with strongly developed 
panniculus adiposus in the knee region. To find this, 
place thumb and forefinger of the right hand upon the 
quadriceps tendon (ligamentum patellae), ask the subject 
to slightly flex the knee, and then slip the forefinger 
over to the side, and explore with the finger nail for 
the separation between the bones. This may be marked 
when found, for reference in other positions of the leg. 
A point of some uncertainty and never vary precise. 
It is defined as the highest point upon the trochanter 
major, but in practice some use the most lateral point, 
thus making the bitrochanteric breadth a synonym of 
the greatest breadth across the thighs, with the heels 
together. Others reach the bone surface from behind, 
where the adhesion of the integument to the subcutane- 
ous bone surface form a deep and noticeable hollow. 
To find the more precise point, as defined, the hand is 
placed nearly flat upon the region where the bone lies 
subcutaneous, and request the subject to move the leg 



SOMATOMETRY ; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BODY 155 

laterally, to bow the body forward, and to make other 
motions which concern either the femur or the adjacent 
parts. The shape of the process, and the position of its 
highest point may thus be located with a fair degree of 
accuracy. 



MEASUREMENTS 
(a) General Considerations; Position of Subject 

In all measurements or other observations of the living subject 
it must first be emphasized that one is engaged in the study of the in- 
dividual bodily variations of an animal species, and that, in order to 
obtain satisfactory results, the subjects, wherever possible, should be 
studied in the nude. When for various reasons this is not practicable, 
however, it will be found that the use of some slight covering does not 
materially interfere with the measurements, although it may be fatal to a 
number of other important observations which are conveniently made 
at the time of the mensuration. Thus it has been found that in a mixed 
class, or with observer and subject of opposite sex, the use of a simple 
bathing-suit allows the majority of the measurements to be taken with 
considerable accuracy, especially when the material of which the suit 
is constructed is of a sort which yields with the underlying surface, and 
does not restrain or confine in any way any part of the body. 

As to the position of the subject when measured, opinions differ, 
the usual choice lying between two; (a) standing erect, and (6) placed in 
a horizontal position upon a measuring table. In the first the subject 
hands as erect as possible, with the heels together and with the arms and 
stands hanging at the sides; the "military position." If, when in this 
position, the exact heights above the floor of certain essential landmarks 
be taken, many essential measurements may be obtained through the 
subtraction of these numbers from one another, thus finding the dif- 
ferences between them. To be exact, however, both the numbers 
indicating heights, and the lengths obtained from them are really pro- 
jections, and concern, not actual points, but the horizontal planes in 
which the points lie. 

To illustrate; if, in a naturally hanging arm, with hand extended 
downward, the distance of the floor from the points acromion, radiale, 
stylion, and dactylion be accurately taken, the subtraction of the radiale 
height from that of the acromion, will give the height of the upper arm, 
that of the stylion height from the radial height gives the length of the 
forearm (i.e., of the radius) ; and that of the dactylion height from that 
of the stylion will give the length of the hand. The total length of arm 
and hand is obtained by subtracting the dactylion height from that of 
the acromion, and so on It will be noticed, however, as these heights 
are each that of horizontal plane passing through the landmark in ques- 



156 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

tion hat the lengths obtained by subtraction are the actual perpendicular 
distances between the two planes considered; and that, in case a bone 
hangs in the body a little obliquely, its actual length will exceed by a 
little its projected length, or that obtained by the subtraction of heights. 
To give another example, take the distance in height between any lateral 
point and a median one, as, for instance, thelion and omphalion. The 
height of either of these, as taken, means the height of a horizontal 
plane through which the point in question passes, and the difference in 
height obtained by subtraction means the perpendicular distance between 
the two planes, that of thelion and that of the omphalion. In actually 
measuring the straight distance from one of these points to the other we 
are dealing with an oblique line, which has nothing necessarily to do 
with the horizontal plane of either point. 

Aside from dealing with projections, which is the really scientific 
method of dealing with relative heights, the use of these projected heights 
has the decided advantage of saving much time,' important alike to 
subject and operator. It is easily possible to run through the usual 
list of heights (about 25) within a very few minutes, after which many 
other measurements, such as the lengths of separate parts of the limbs 
or the projected distance between trunk landmarks, may be readily 
calculated in the study. 

In the other types of measurement, such as breadths, or girths, the 
standing position of the subject is extremely convenient, with the possible 
exception of the few that concern that portion of the figure below the 
knee, where some stooping is required on the part of the operator, but 
this is quite inconsiderable, as there is but a small number of such data 
to be obtained. 

For measuring the body in the horizontal position the only absolute 
essential is a horizontal table six feet or a little more in length, and two and 
a half feet in breadth, upon which the subject may be placed upon the 
back. To admit a little comfort a slight pillow is admissable, care being 
taken that it does not materially change the position of neck or head. 

To these simple essentials many improvements may be added, for 
the comfort of either operator or subject, or both. For example, the 
board may be crossed by transverse lines in black painted and graded 
to serve as an anthropometer; or, by means of some simple staging, the 
metal rod of the regular anthropometer may be suspended horizontally 
above the subject, while one of the cross-bars, slipping back and forth 
upon the graded rod, marks the points desired with precision. Frassetto, 
the anthropologist of Bologna, one of the chief advocates of this position, 
has a table that swings upon a strong steel cross bar, which runs across 
the middle of the table. The subject takes his position when the table is 
set upright on the floor, with his feet standing upon the transversely 
placed board at the lower end, and with his back touching the table top. 
When this is done the table is swung slowly into the horizontal position 



SOMATOMETRY ; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BODY 



157 



by some such mechanisms as are used in the chairs of dentists and barbers, 
and the subject is ready to be measured. 

Concerning the relative advantages of the two positions, they may be 
set forth as follows : 



Erect position 

1. A rigidly erect position is hard to main- 
tain; a fatigued subject frequently 
shrugs the shoulders and sways at the 
hips, thus constantly making differ- 
ences of a centimeter or more in some 
of the longer measurements. 

2. [No counter argument]. 



3. [No counter argument]. 



4. [No counter argument]. 



Recumbent position 

The ease with which a body lies on the 
back insures a much quieter and more 
motionless position than in a standing 
subject. This allows more accurate 
measurement. 

Children, and even babies, may be 
measured in a recumbent position where 
an erect and motionless position is 
impossible. 

The dead body may be measured in 
the recumbent position, and, allow- 
ing for a certain amount of relaxation, 
the data thus obtained may be directly 
compared with those from the living. 
The bodies of apes and monkeys, as in 
the case of dead bodies, can be directly 
compared with data obtained from the 
living, when measured in the recumbent 
position, while, if the living are measured 
erect, no comparison is possible. 
[No counter argument]. 



5. Primitive and superstitious people, 
who often object to any form of meas- 
urement, still often allow more or less 
of it, when allowed to stand erect. It 
would usually prove quite impossible 
to place them on their back for any 
form of measurement or other investi- 
gation, as this position would be felt 
by them to be a position of defence- 
lessness or of actual dishonor. 



As a purely academic question the arguments seem about equally bal- 
anced, with possibly a little more weight upon the side of the horizontal 
position, yet, the arguments against this position and in favor of a stand- 
ing subject are so cogent from a practical standpoint (cf. argument 5), 
that at the International Congress of 1912 at Geneva the standing position 
was adopted as a part of the prescription. At this time the general 
principles adopted were the following: 

(a) For measurements upon the living the standing position is 

adopted. 
(6) The method of projections is adopted, save in cases where 

special mention is made of some other way. 
(c) For paired measurements it is recommended that the work be 



158 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

done upon the left side, but that the measurements of both 
sides be taken in the cases of the acromial and trochanteric 
heights above the ground. 

(d) Observers are requested to always carefully indicate their 
methods and their instrumentation. 

(e) It is very strongly recommended to all persons wishing to do 
any anthropometric work not to be content with a theoretical 
study of the principles of mensuration, but to learn them 
practically in one of the different laboratories in which they 
are taught.* 

A certain number of prescriptions for the measurement of the living 
head (some 19) was included in the prescription of 1906, at Monaco, 
which form the basis of all later proposals. Certain measurements of 
the trunk and limbs were decided upon during the session of 1912, at 
Geneva, and are equally fundamental. In the list which follows, and 
which includes, not only the measurements of the two original lists, but 
others that have received general approval since then, the former are 
marked *by an asterisk. These lists, in their original form, may be found 
as follows : 

1. Skulls and living heads, Monaco 1906. 

French; L'Anthropologie, T. 17, 1906, pp. 559-572; reported by 

Papillault. 

English; Journ. Roy. Anthrop. Inst. reported by Duckworth. 
II. Trunk and limbs of the living, Geneva, 1912. 

French; L'Anthropologie, T. 23. 1912, pp. 623-627, reported by 

Rivet. 
Italian; Rivista di Antropologia, 1912, Vol. XXII Fasc. III. 

pp. 1-15 reported by Frassetto. 

German; Korrespondenzbl. der Deutschen Anthropol. Gesell. 
1913, Jahrg. XLIV, No. 1. Publ. in Archiv fur Anthropolo- 
gie; reported by Schlaginhaufen. 

English; Journ. Roy. Anthrop. Inst. reported by Duckworth. 
(6) Lists of Usual Measurements 

A. ON THE HEAD 

1. Linear measurements. 

1. Maximum head length (g-op) 

2. Glabella-inion length (g-i) 

3. Maximum head-breadth (eu-eu) 

4. Least frontal breadth (ft-ft) 

5. Bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy) 

6. Bigonial breadth (go-go) 

* The italics are those, of the present author; the translation is free, after the 
French version (L'Anthropologie, T. 23, 1912, pp. 623-627, by RIVET). 



SOMATOMETRY ; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BODY 159 

7. -Biauricular breadth (t-t) 

8. Bimastoid (ms ms) 

9. Biocular breadth (ex-ex) 

10. Interocular breadth (en-en) 

11. Interpupillary distance (with pupillometer) 

12. Breadth of palpebral opening (Subtract No. 11 from No. 10) 

13. Nasal breadth (al-al) 

14. Oral breadth (ch-ch) 

15. Auricular height (t-v); projection, i.e. difference of level between 
tragion and vertex; may be done either by anthropometer as in the case 
of the skull or by subtraction. 

16. Height, vertex to subnasale (v-sn) by subtraction, or in projec- 
tion with anthropometer. 

1 7 . Physiognomic facial length (tr-gn) ; only in individuals with normal 
extent of hair. 

18. Morphological facial length (n-gn) 

19. Physiognomic superior facial length (n-sto) 

20. Morphological superior facial length (n pr) 

21. Nasal length, in ground plan (n-ns); used for nasal index with 13 

22. Nasal length, along profile (n-prn) 

23. Nasal height, projection from face (prn-sn) 

24. Frontal height, physiognomic (tr-n); only in individuals with 
normal extent of hair. ; 

25. Height of mucous lips (li-ls) 

26. Height of entire upper lip, (sn-sto) 

27. Height of entire lower lip (sto-slm) 

28. Height of chin (sto-gn) 

29. Physiognomic ear length (sa-sba) 

30. Physiognomic ear breadth (pra-pa) 

31. Morphological ear length, cf. ear of horse, sheep etc. (t-tu) 

32. Morphological ear breath (obs-obi) 

2. Angles. 

33. Profile angle (line FH with line n-pr prolonged) 

34. Camper's facial angle (line meat-sn with line on-sn) 

35. Superior facial angle (line meat-pr with line meat-n) 

3. Girths. 

36. Horizontal circumference of the head. Put the "O" of the tape 
measure at the glabella with the left hand, lay tape with the right hand 
along the left side of the head over what appears to be the opisthocranion 
and thence around to point of beginning. Shift until correct, with the 
tape placed horizontally and drawn over the opisthocranion. 

37. Sagittal arc; with the tape, from nasion, over top of head, to 
inion, in the median plane. This does not quite correspond to the like- 



160 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

named measurement on the skull, as in the latter the posterior terminus 
of this arc is on the opisthion. 

38. Transverse arc; from tragion to tragion, over the vertex. 

B. ON THE TRUNK AND LIMBS. 

1. Height from floor (Projections) 

1. Ht. vertex (total stature) 

2. Ht. tragus 

3. Ht. gnathion (eyes looking straight ahead). 

4. Ht. suprasternale 

5. Ht. thelion (not taken in women with hanging breasts) 

6. Ht. mesosternale 

7. Ht. omphalion 

8. Ht. symphysion 

9. Ht. iliocristale 

10. Ht. iliospinale 

11. Ht. vertebrale 

12. Ht. lumbale 

13. Ht. acromion 

14. Ht. radiale 

15. Ht. stylion 

16. Ht. dactylion 

17. Ht. trochanterion 

18. Ht. tibiale 

19. Ht. spherion 

2. Sitting height; from plane of seat. 

[For these the subject should be seated upon a low, level table, where 
the foot of the anthropometer should also rest. If the feet be placed 
upon a rather high chair, thus lifting the dorsal muscles of the thigh from 
contact with the table, they cannot be used by the subject in lifting the 
body, while it rests directly upon the sciatic tubers (ischiadic tuberos- 
ities), here quite subcutaneous] 

20. S. Ht. vertex (This gives the trunk length between vertex and 
the lowest point of the pelvic girdle). 

21. S. Ht. tragus (This gives the trunk length from the first vertebra, 
as the tragus level is practically the same as that of the occipital condyles, 
or the plane tangent with the upper projections of the atlas. (The sub- 
ject must look straight ahead, as in Measurement 3, and some others). 

22. S. Ht. suprasternale (This gives the trunk height from the 
anterior end of the sternum, a point often used). 

23. S. Ht. vertebrale. 

24. S. Ht. iliocristale (This gives the height of the pelvic girdle). 



SOMATOMETRY ; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BODY 161 

3 Arm-stre'.ch. 

25. Arm stretch (The best way to get this is to place the subject 
against a wall, with arms extended horizontally, with shoulders and 
dorsal aspect of the arms in contact with the wall, and with the palms 
facing forwards. The extreme distance between the points of the two 
middle fingers -when exerted to the utmost is the distance to be measured. 
It facilitates measurement if the wall be marked in centimeters along 
a horizontal area where the arms of the subject may be expected to come; 
also if one middle finger tip be placed in contact with a small board 
placed vertically upon the wall, the attention may be more completely 
directed to the position of the other. 

In default of a wall the anthropometer may be held horizontally 
behind the subject, and the fingers used to push the rods apart). 

4 Diameters. 

26. Biacromial diameter (a-a). 

27. Breadth of shoulders between the deltoids; widest place (secdary). 

28. Bimammillary diameter (th-th). 

29. Ilio cristal diameter; "cristal breadth" (ic-ic) 

30. Iliospinal diameter; "spinal breadth" (is-is). 

31. Bitrochanteric diameter; " trochanteric breadth" (tro-tro). 

32. Dorso-ventral pelvic diameter (lu-sy). 

33. Dorso-ventral diameter of thorax; plane I (at level of base of 
ensiform cartilage). 

34. Transverse diameter of thorax; Plane I. 

35. Dorso-ventral diameter of thorax; Plane II (level of mesosternale). 

36. Transverse diameter of thorax; Plane II. 

[The four above diameters of the thorax are to be taken with the 
chest midway between a full inspiration and an expiration.] 

37. Bicondylar diameter at elbow (secondary). 

38. Bistyloid diameter at wrist (secondary). 

39. Bicondylar diameter at knee (secondary). 

40. Bimalleolar diameter at ankle (secondary). 

5 Girths 

41. Girth of neck, across larynx. 

42. Girth of thorax, Plane I; (quiet breathing, midway between 
inspiration and expiration). 

43. Girth of thorax; Plane II; (quiet breathing. Lift arms to shoulder 
height, and place tape around chest, well up in the axillae, at level of 
mesosternale; then let arms drop, while tape is held in place by the 
operator. Let subject continue quite breathing, and take the middle 
point shown by the tape between the extremes). 

44. Girth at waist, least girth of body. 

45. Girth of upper arm, greatest when relaxed. 
11 



162 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

46. Girth across contracted biceps. 

47. Girth of forearm, greatest. 

48. Girth of wrist, least. 

49. Girth of thigh, greatest (in or about the gluteal fold). 

50. Girth of thigh, middle. 

51. Girth of thigh, least (just above knee). 

52. Girth of calf 

53. Girth of ankle, least. 

54. Contour tracing of hand (traced with a split pencil, held vertically) . 

55. Length of hand (either by subtraction of No. 16 from No. 15, 
or by direct measurement between stylion and dactylion). 

56. Breadth of hand (mm-ml). 

57. Contour of foot (as in No. 54). 

58. Length of foot (burdened by weight of body), (ap-pte). This is 
most conveniently taken with the osteometric board. The subject 
stands upon this, with the farthest forward point (acropodion) in contact 
with the fixed board which indicates O. The moveable board is then 
moved up to contact with the heel (pternion). 

59. Breadth of foot (burdened by weight of body), (mt.m-mt.l). 

C. WEIGHT (in Kilograms). 

60. Weight of body (without clothing). 

As the weight without clothing is often inconvenient to obtain, the 
following data on the weight of clothing [Martin, p. 152] may be found 
useful. These data are taken from the dress of Central Europe, which 
should be about the same as found in the United States. 

I. Total weight of clothing, without hat; averages. 

man, in summer 3800 grams 

man, in winter 4500 grams 

woman, in summer 3000 grams 

woman, in winter 4000 grams 

II. Percentage of clothing in the total weight (clothed) of children. 

boys; 3-6 years 6% 

girls; 3-6 years 7% 

boys; 7-14 years 8% 

girls; 4-14 years 7% 

III. Average weights of certain garments. 

boy's shirt 100 grams 

boy's shirt and stockings 300 grams 

girl's chemise and petticoat 500 grams 

shoes; children of six years 200 grams 

. half-shoes of older children 350 grams 

boys boots 700 grams 



SOMATOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BODY 163 

Measurements Obtained By Calculation From Other Measurements 

(1) Trunk length 

It is very important to determine upon the best of the many possible 
trunk-lengths and use it exclusively and universally, since especially 
it is of great importance in all comparisons with the limbs, but unfor- 
tunately there are many possible trunk-lengths, and each may have 
certain advantages, such as greater availability, or a better value for 
comparison. The many possible limits to be set to this length, each one 
with some following, are the following : 

Upper limit Lower limit 

Tragus Lumbale 

Subnasale Symphysion 

Inion Sciatic tuber 

Cervicale End of coccyx 
Suprasternale 

For the upper limit the tragus and subnasale, in a standing figure with 
'eyes forward are either of them in about the plane of the upper face of 
the atlas, and thus give the upper limit of the vertebral column. The 
inion is a bit higher, but is easy to locate (meaning here the occipital 
protuberance). The two others, cervicale and suprasternale, are used 
as the upper limit when the trunk alone is desired, counting off the cer- 
vical region, as is often done. In the case of the lower limit neither 
symphysion nor lumbale give the full value to the physiological trunk, 
since they omit the lower part of the pelvic girdle. This latter is, mor- 
phologically a part of the appendage, and thus shows certain arguments in 
favor of the omission. Viewed physiologically, however, the girdle is a 
part of the trunk, and thus should be included down to the plane of the 
sciatic tuber or the end of the coccyx. At present this view prevails, 
and the choice rests much in favor of the first. To use the plane of the 
sciatic tuber for the lower limit of the trunk it is simply necessary to seat 
the subject upon a table in the manner lecommended above, with the 
feet supported rather high, so that no aid can be furnished from the dorsal 
muscles of hip or thigh, and then take the height from the table of any 
of the upper limits decided upon. Thus, selecting the suprasternale, as 
here recommended if the neck is not to be included, the height of this 
landmark in the seated subject is also the trunk-length. Should one wish 
to include the neck, use the tragus height. 

(2) Arm length 

Length of entire arm and By direct measurement, By projection, by sub- 
hand from acromion to dactyl- tracting ht. of dactylion 

ion; arm either extended from ht. acromion. 

horizontally or hanging 

pendulous; hand in either 

case extended so far as 

possible. 



164 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



Length of entire arm, with- Direct; between acromion By subtracting ht. styl- 



out hand 

Length of upper arm 
Length of forearm 
Length of hand 



and stylion, in extended 
arm. 

Direct; between acromion 
and radiale. 

Direct; between radiale 
and stylion. 

Direct; between stylion 
and dactylion, hand ex- 
tended. 



ion from ht. acromion. 

By subtracting ht. radiale 
from ht. acromion. 
By subtracting ht, stylion 
from ht. radiale. 
By subtracting ht, dac- 
tylion from ht. stylion. 



Limb measurements are a little longer when taken direct than when calculated by 
subtraction (projection method). Thus the forearm, where the difference is the 
most marked, is about 6 mm. longer by the first method, but the upper arm is longer 
by only about .5 mm. The other results differ by about 3 mm. 



(3) Leg length 

In the leg there is no definite landmark to use as the proximal limit, 
as the pelvic girdle has a different physiological relation to the body from 
that of the shoulder girdle, and consequently there is no point on the 
former to serve the same purpose as the acromion. It is usual to consider 
the head of the femur as marking this limit, but here the difficulty is hat 
this feature lies too deeply for palpation, or even approximately locating 
it. One may use, however, its average relative distance from other 
landmarks, and by such means several of the following rules have been 
devised. 



Total length of leg from head of 
femur to sole; subject standing 
Total length of leg without foot 

Length of thigh 



Length of lower leg 



(o) Sub tract 40 mm. from iliospinale, or 

(6) Add 35 mm. to symphysis. 

Subtract ht. sphyrion from ht. iliospinale, and 

from this result subtract 9% of itself. 

(a) Subtract tibiale from iliospinale, and from 
this result subtract 7% of itself. This corre- 
sponds to the physiological length of the 
femur. 

(6) Take the direct measure between iliospinale 
and tibiale, and from this subtract 40 mm. 

(c) Subtract tibiale from symphysion and then 
add 10% of this result. 

Subtract ht. sphyrion from ht, tibiale. 



INDICES 
(a) Indices referring to certain measurements as standards. 

In comparing a number of measurements together it is sometimes con- 
venient to refer them all to a certain definite standard, especially if 
this standard is itself one that is not very variable. For instance it 
would occur to everyone to use as such a standard, the total stature, 
to which other measurements, such as the lengths of arm or leg, trunk- 



SOMATOMETRY; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BODY 165 

length or thoracic depth, could be referred, and through which they could 
be compared with one another; the comparison would become unjust in 
the case of an individual with an abnormally long neck, yet, in the major- 
ity of cases, this standard would serve its purpose. 

Two such standards are commonly used, and the sets of indices are the 
following: 

any bodily measurement X 100 



I. Index a = 
II. Index 6 = 



total stature. 

any bodily measurement X 100 
trunk length (sitting height of sst). 



For this latter Martin uses the distance (projected) between height of 
suprasternale and the perineal height ; but as this latter point is not advo- 
cated here, and is difficult to obtain, the distance sst sciatic tubers is 
substituted. 

(6) Convenient indices which bring out comparisons which are fre- 
quently desired. 

length of forearm X 100 
Brachial index - 



Forearm-hand index , 

length 01 torearm 

hand breadth X 100 
Hand index - 

hand length 

,.,. . ,. , length of lower leg X 100 

Tibio-femoral index - r f ^, . , 

length of thigh 

length of foot X 100 



Lower leg-foot index 



Intermembral index I 



length of lower leg 

length of entire arm X 100 



length of entire leg 

, . , TT length; upper arm + forearm XI 00 
Intermembral index II - 

length; thigh + lower leg 

length of upper arm X 100 
Femoro-humeral index - 

length of thigh 

m., . length of forearm X 100 

Tibio-radial index - 

length ol lower leg 

. , . max. girth upper arm* X 100 

Upper arm girth index - 

length of upper arm 

max. girth forearm X 100 
Forearm girth index - ^ 

length of forearm 

,. . max. girth forearm X 100 
Arm proportion index - 

max. girth upper arm* 

min. girth forearm X 100 
Forearm proportion index - 

max. girth forearm 

* with biceps muscle not contracted. 



166 LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 

. ,, . , max. girth of thigh X ICO 
Thigh girth index - . 

length of thigh 

. ,, . , max. girth of lower leg X 100 
Lower leg girth index - p- 

length of lower leg 

, . . , max. girth of lower leg X 100 
Leg proportion index - r-rr , ., . , 

max. girth of thigh 

min. girth of lower leg X ICO 
Lower leg proportion index - = - ^ 

max. girth of lower leg 

bimammilarv diameter X 100 
Mammilo-acrormal index - 



Cristo-spinal index 



biacromial diameter 
iliospinal diameter X 100 



Acromio-cristal index 



iliocristai diameter 
iliocristal diameter X 100 



biacromial diameter 

,,, . , bitrochanteric diameter X 100 
Body breadth index - =-= 

biacromal diameter 

transverse thoracic diameter I X 100 



Thoracic index I. 



Thoracic index II. 



sagittal thoracic diameter I 
transverse thoracic diameter II X 100 



Skelic index [Manouvrier] 



sagittal thoracic diameter 
leg length * X 100 



trunk length 



hyperbrachyskeli c below 75 

brachyskelic 75-80 

subbrachyskelic 80-85 

mesatiskelic (mesoskelic) 85-90 

submakroskelic 90-95 

makroskelic 95-100 

hypermakroskelic 100 

Constitutional index The maximum thoracic girth in centimeters + 
the total weight in kilograms is to be subtracted from the total stature 
in centimeters. Difference between these two numbers below 

10 denotes a very strong constitution 

11-15 denotes a very strong constitution 

16-20 denotes a very good constitution 

21-25 denotes a veiy fair constitution 

26-30 denotes a very weak constitution 

31-35 denotes a very weak constitution 

above 36 denotes a very bad constitution 

* To use the accompanying table of values it is of course necessary to use also the 
measurements of the author [Manouvrier]. His leg length is that obtained by sub- 
tracting the total sitting height, from the vertex to the table on which the subject is 
sitting, and his trunk length is the same as the total sitting height. 



SOM ATOMETRY ; THE MEASUREMENT OF THE BODY 167 

This index has little if any value in individuals, but, representing an 
average of many individuals of one race, it has significance concerning 
the race. 

,. . T . ., cube root of the weight X 100 
Weight index [index ponderahs of Livi] - , . , ' 

total height 



APPENDIX A 



MEASUREMENTS OF THE SKULLS OF 93 INDIANS FROM SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND 

MARIAN VERA KNIGHT, A. M. (SMITH) 

From The Craniometry of the Southern New England Indians; Mem. Conn. Acad. 
Sci, July 1915 from the Anthropometrical Laboratory of Smith College. 

TABLE, GIVING THE RANGE OF VARIATION AND THE MEAN FOR EACH MEASURE- 
MENT TAKEN FOR EACH SEX, AS FAR AS AVAILABLE. 







Males 






Females 






Ave. 


Max. 


Min. 


Ave. 


Max. 


Min. 


Maximum length (g-oe) 
Maximum breadth (eu-eu) . 
Glabella-inion length (g-i) . . 
Nasion-inion length (n-i) . . . 
Frontal arc (arc n-b) . . . . 


182.2 
134.0 
175.5 
171.0 
126 2 


203.5* 
151.0 
206.5* 
200.5* 
142 


169.0 
120.0 
161.0 
157.0 
112 


175 5 
132.0 
164.4 
160.3 
123 


188.0 
145.0 
178.0 
169.0 
137 


1 
158.0 
124.0 
150.0 
145.0 
113 


-Parietal arc (arc b-1) 


122 7 


129.0 


101 


119 4 


129 


101 


Occipital arc (arc l-o) 


118.8 


147.0 


101.0 


113 3 


137 


101 


Frontal chord (n-b) 


113.6 


127.0 


104.0 


108 


116 


102 


Parietal chord (b-1) 


109.6 


121.0 


99.0 


107.2 


117 


96 


Occipital chord (l-o) 


97 8 


109 


85 


96 8 


114 


89 


Total facial length (n-gn) . . . 
Superior facial length (n-pr) 
Orbital height (right angles 
to mf-ek) 


113.58 
69.2 

33.83 


126.0 
76.0 

36.0 


103.0 
59.0 

31.0 


111.9 
67.3 

33.78 


127.0 
76.0 

36 5 


102.0 
57.0 

31 


Nasal height (n-ns) 


50.35 


57.0 


39.0 


49.4 






Chin height (id-gn) . . 


34.1 


39.0 


31 


32 5 


38 


28 


Least frontal breadth (ft-ft) 
Interfrontomalare tempora- 
le (fmt-fmt) 


93.2 
98.0 


108.0 
104.0 


82.0 
92.0 


90.0 
93 


99.0 
100 


82.0 
85 


Interfrontomalare orbitale 
(fmo-fmo) 


98.05 






93 






Interorbital breadth (la-la) . 


23.6 


27.0 


18.0 


20.8 






Bizygom axillary breadth 
(zm-zm) 


105.9 


112.0 


83.0 


99.3 


100 


87 


Bizygomatic breadth (zy- 
zv) . . 


132.0 


147.0 


110.0 


127.6 


135.0 


121.0 


Biauricular breadth (au-au) 
Orbital breadth (mf-ek) 
Nasal breadth (right angles 
to n-ns) 


123.2 
42.52 

25.77 


138.0 
47.0 

31.0 =f 


104.0 
39.0 

21.0 = 


120.3 
41.56 


128.0 
43.0 


112.0 
36.0 


Greatest frontal breadth . . . 
Horizontal circumference 
over glabella 


119.1 
518.1 


123.0 
555.0 


101.0 
495 


111.3 

497 


125.0 
532 


99.0 
461 


Horizontal circumference 
over ophvron 


511.1 


546.0 


490 


492 5 


523 


456 


Transverse circumference. . 
Basal facial length (n-ba) . . . 


324.6 
102.3 


370.0 


301.0 


312.6 
97.5 


337 


270.0 


Cranial height (ba-b) . . . . 


136.1 






133 2 





















*The maximum measurements for males are much increased, especially in length 
measures of the cranium by including a single skull of huge proportions which come 
from a cemetery in Warren, R. I. If this had not been included, the three measures 
here indicated would have been, respectively, 198, 190, and 194. 

t ( = ) Measurements thus given are without separation of the two sexes. 

169 



170 



LABOEATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



TABLE, GIVING THE RANGE OP VARIATION AND THE MEAN FOR EACH MEASURE- 
MENT TAKEN FOR EACH SEX, AS FAR AS AVAILABLE. Continued. 







Males 






Females 






Ave. 


Max. 


Min. 


Ave. 


Max. 


Min. 


Basion-gnathion length (ba- 
en) . . 


114.1 






110.5 






Basion-opisthion (ba-o) .... 
Breadth; occip. for (at right 
angles to ba-o) 


36.0 
30.7 


42.0 
35.0 


32.0 
22.0 


36.5 
30.76 


40.0 
33.0 


32.0 
22 


Total sagittal arc (arc n-o) . 
Bimastoid breadth (ms-ms) 
Maxillo-alveolar length. . . . 
Maxillo-alveolar breadth. . . 
Palatal length 


368.7 
105.5 
53.36 
61.39 
46.11 


398.0 
124.0 
60*. 
72.0 
51.0 


336.0 
90.0 
46.0 
53.0 
43.0 


357.0 
99.4 
51.8 
69.62 
45.5 


383.0 
106.0 
57.0 
67.0 
52.0 


330.0 
88.0 
42.0 
44.0 
37 


Palatal breadth 


36.5 


45.0 


32.0 


38.0 


45.0 


30 


Auricular height 


115.4 


129.0 


92.0 


113.5 


124.0 


109 


Condylar breadth 


115.5 


138.0 


84.0 


113.2 


124 


102 


Bigonial breadth (go-go) . . . 
Length of ramus 


93.5 

58.7 


116.0 
74.0 


80.0 
51.0 


98.0 
55.0 


104.0 
66 


87.0 
44 


Least breadth of ramus .... 
Length-breadth 


35.5 
73.63 


41.0 
81.5 


29.0 
63.4 


33.8 
75.43 


39.0 

84 4 


28.0 
67 


Length-height 


74.73 


81.67 


64.36 


75.90 


84 12 


65 57 


Breadth-height 


101.49 






100.76 






Length-auric, height 


63.19 






65.14 






Transverse frontal 


78.15 


89.91 


73.17 


81.08 


87 88 


76 


Transverse f ronto-parietal . . 


69.40 


78.26 = 


60.54 = 


68.18 






Sagittal f ronto-par (arcs) . . . 


97.62 






96.75 






Sagittal frontal ; arc to chore 


90 48 






88 62 






Sagittal parietal ; arc to chord 


89 43 






89 92 






Sagittal occipital; arc to 
chord 


82.35 






85.84 






Total facial 


84.33 






87.84 






Superior facial 


52.27 






52 34 






Nasal 


52.0 


66.0 = 


39 = 


51 02 






Orbital 


80.95 


92.0 = 


74 = 


80 49 






Interorbital 


23.47 






24.70 






Maxillo-alveolar 


115.09 






134.62 






Palatal 


78.26 


107.14 = 


65 31 


84 44 






Cranio-facial; bizygomatic 
breadth by cranial breadth 


98.51 


109.2 = 


85.71 = 


96.97 






Fronto-biorbital 


94.90 






96 77 






Fronto-malar; least frontal 
breadth by bizygomatic . . 


70.45 


76.23 = 


64.49 = 


70.31 






Malar-mandibular; bigonial 
to bizygomatic breadths 


70.45 






76.56 






Fronto-parietal (chords) . . . 


95.61 


111.0 = 


80.0 = 


98.17 





















APPENDIX B 



BODILY MEASUREMENTS OF 100 SMITH COLLEGE STUDENTS (FEMALE) TAKEN 
BY MARGARET WASHINGTON, A. M. (SMITH) 



No. 


Ancestry 


Age 


Total 
Height 


Arm- 
stretch 


Ht. 
Tragus 


Ht. Vert, 
prom. 


1 


Dutch, Ger 


20 


1738 


1760 


1599 


1504 


2 


Welch, Norm 


23 


1654 


1683 


1533 


1420 


3 


Ene. . . 


18 


1655 


1662 


1513 


1404 


4 


Jewish (Russ.) 


21 


1510 


1540 


1393 


1289 


5 


Ene-, Ir. . . 


23 


1543 


1551 


1400 


1302 
















6 


Enc. . . 


20 


1667 


1688 


1539 


1431 


7 


Ene. . 


21 


1636 


1677 


1515 


1426 


8 


Ene. . . 


21 


1635 


1621 


1502 


1382 


9 


Dutch, Scot 


21 


1589 


1584 


1463 


1339 


10 


Scot., Ir 


20 


1694 


1743 


1551 


1430 
















11 


Ene. . . 


18 


1614 


1663 


1489 


1383 


12 


Ene. . . 


19 


1747 


1764 


1606 


1486 


13 


Scot., Ir 


21 


1757 


1745 


1625 


1502 


14 


Eru.. Ir. . 


20 


1662 


1659 


1538 


1429 


15 


Ger., FT 


19 


1631 


1668 


1520 


1400 
















16 


Eng., Dutch 


24 


1564 


1560 


1440 


1310 


17 


Ene. . . 


22 


1674 


1672 


1521 


1407 


18 


Eng. . . 


20 


1698 


1760 


1554 


1450 


19 


Ene. . . 


18 


1525 


1509 


1405 


1286 


20 


Eng., Ir.. . 


21 


1555 


1600 


1422 


1315 
















21 


Scot., Ir 


22 


1647 


1680 


1502 


1386 


22 


Eng., Dutch 


17 


1662 


1715 


1540 


1412 


23 


Jr.. Dutch 


23 


1649 


1620 


1519 


1402 


24 


Eng. . . 


21 


1637 


1614 


1513 


1400 


25 


Ene. . . 


20 


1593 


1569 


1473 


?367 
















26 


Ene. . . 


21 


1695 


1729 


1574 


1452 


27 


Eng., Scot 


19 


1720 


1743 


1593 


1469 


28 


Eng., Dutch 


20 


1627 


1615 


1499 


1394 


29 


Scot., Ir., Ger 


19 


1556 


1577 


1432 


1321 


30 


Ene. . . 


20 


1642 


1651 


1509 


1390 
















31 


Scot., Dutch 


21 


1504 


1509 


1396 


1274 


32 


Ir 


21 


1684 


1755 


1552 


1456 


33 


Ene.. 


21 


1654 


1687 


1524 


1422 


34 


Ene. . . 


18 


1630 


1563 


1505 


1379 


35 


Ene. . . 


20 


1556 


1552 


1424 


1323 

















171 



172 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



No. 


Ancestry 


Age 


Total 
Height 


Arm- 
stretch 


Ht. 
Tragus 


Ht. Vert, 
prom. 


36 


Eng., Fr... 


22 


1562 


1623 


1445 


1322 


37 


Ene. 


22 


1668 


1624 


1538 


1436 


38 


Ger 


19 


1598 


1609 


1476 


1386 


39 


Eng., Scot 


20 


1624 


1553 


1483 


1380 


40 


Eng. . . 


22 


1606 


1655 


1459 


1374 
















41 


Eng. . , 


20 


1609 


1685 


1509 


1386 


42 


Scot., Ir. 


21 


1714 


1727 


1580 


1454 


43 


Eng., Scot., Ir. . ... 


21 


1610 


1597 


1478 


1380 


44 


Eng., Scot., Ir 


18 


1657 


1708 


1523 


1404 


45 


Ger 


20 


1600 


1605 


1476 


1361 
















46 


Eng. . . 


20 


1651 


1630 


1512 


1417 


47 


Ger.. Ital 


20 


1571 


1588 


1446 


1347 


48 


Eng. 


21 


1696 


1655 


1571 


1460 


49 


Eng., Soct 


20 


1696 


1700 


1552 


1461 


50 


Jewish (Ger., Rus.) 


19 


1621 


1650 


1480 


1400 
















51 


Eng. . . 


21 


1590 


1563 


1462 


1365 


52 


Eng. . 


21 


1620 


1641 


1495 


1390 


53 


Enc. 


20 


1688 


1664 


1548 


1430 


54 


Engr 


20 


1634 


1599 


1523 


1405 


55 


Em*. 


24 


170S 


1792 


1587 


1464 
















56 


Eng. . . 


24 


1648 


1676 


1510 


1384 


57 


Enc. 


19 


1759 


1728 


1627 


1515 


58 


Jewish (Rus.) 


20 


1545 


1540 


1423 


1328 


59 


Ger., Fr... 


21 


1697 


1644 


1568 


1453 


60 


Enc.. 


23 


1636 


1676 


1511 


1409 
















61 


Enn. . . 


22 


1574 


1568 


1443 


1342 


62 


Enc. . 


21 


1680 


1700 


1555 


1433 


63 


Scot., Ir. . 


21 


1601 


1581 


1492 


1371 


64 


Ger 


18 


1669 


1621 


1521 


1431 


65 


Ger 


18 


1668 


1631 


1522 


1433 
















66 


Ene. . . 


19 


1594 


1653 


1479 


1376 


67 


Eng. . 


21 


1645 


1730 


1532 


1400 


68 


Eng., Scot 


18 


1609 


1658 


1470 


1373 


69 


Eng., Fr., Ger 


19 


1679 


1673 


1540 


1430 


70 


Enec. . . 


19 


1685 


1673 


1558 


1441 
















71 


Eng., Ger 


20 


1597 


1542 


1470 


1372 


72 


Eng., Dutch 


18 


1636 


1655 


1495 


1398 


73 


Eng., Ger 


20 


1684 


1640 


1568 


1450 


74 


Eng., Scot 


20 


1650 


1610 


1523 


1405 


75 


Eng 


19 


1638 


1710 


1518 


1414 

















APPENDIX 



173 



Xo. 


Ancestry 


Age 


Total 
Height 


Arm- 
stretch 


Ht. 
Tragus 


Ht. Vert, 
prom. 


76 


Eng. . . 


20 


1663 


1670 


1532 


1413 


77 


Eng., Fr. 


22 


1563 


1564 


1455 


1350 


78 


Scot., Ir 


21 


1548 


1593 


1435 


1323 


79 


Eng. . . 


18 


1674 


1625 


1555 


1432 


SO 


Eng. 


17 


1696 


1765 


1568 


1444 
















81 


Eng., Scot., Fr. ... 


21 


1681 


1702 


1553 


1451 


82 


Eng. 


18 


1640 


1611 


1513 


1428 


83 


Ene. 


20 


1609 


1570 


1480 


1363 


84 


Eng 


18 


1667 


1660 


1534 


1400 


85 


Eng., Ir., Welch 


20 


1627 


1681 


1500 


1395 
















86 


Eng., Scot 


20 


1697 


1725 


1562 


1446 


87 


Irish 


20 


1696 


1673 


1537 


1456 


88 


German 


21 


1611 


1650 


1477 


1392 


89 


Eng.. 


25 


1603 


1624 


1495 


1373 


90 


Enc. . . 


27 


1641 


1634 


1517 


1405 
















91 


Entr 


21 


1661 


1605 


1522 


1432 


92 


Ene. . 


20 


1551 


1615 


1439 


1341 


93 


Scot., Ger. 


19 


1590 


1622 


1456 


1345 


94 


Eng., Ger. 


21 


1674 


1725 


1534 


1424 


95 


Eng., Scot 


19 


1546 


1560 


1440 


1307 
















96 


Eng., Ger. 


21 


1562 


1583 


1446 


1340 


97 


German . . 


23 


1584 


1644 


1465 


1357 


98 


Eng., Dutch 


20 


1631 


1595 


1500 


1402 


99 


Eng., Scot 


20 


1642 


1694 


1522 


1400 


100 


Eng. . . 


21 


1612 


1630 


1485 


1384 

















174 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



No. 


Ht. 

Juris. 


Ht. 
Acrom. 


Ht. 
Nipple 


Ht. 
Umbil. 


Ht. 
Sp-il. 


Ht. 
Troch. 


Ht. 
S-pub. 


Ht. 
Olecr. 


Ht. 

St-rad. 


1 


1421 


1421 


1268 


1064 


1005 


910' 


899 


1100 


847 


2 


1366 


1357 


1233 


990 


961 


897 


875 


1062 


794 


3 


1356 


1325 


1205 


1001 


923 


920 


860 


1029 


790 


4 


1232 


1205 




899 


831 


773 


767 


937 


717 


5 


1247 


1242 


1111 


919 


857 


806 


790 


957 


729 


6 


1375 


1362 


1237 


1022 


946 


874 


847 


1049 


800 


7 


1349 


1344 


1189 


995 


939 


863 


832 


1036 


799 


8 


1326 


1315 




983 


940 


845 


838 


1012 


785 


9 


1291 


1295 


1169 


955 


919 


841 


808 


S95 


763 


10 


1379 


1369 


1246 


1010 


943 


881 


870 


1061 


757 


11 


1329 


1316 


1196 


997 


934 


877 


870 


998 


757 


12 


1450 


1412 


1276 


1042 


1008 


939 


913 


1119 


839 


13 


1426 


1425 


1223 


1032 


999 


899 


883 


1126 


837 


14 


1360 


1365 




1031 


970 


892 


877 


1106 


825 


15 


1348 


1351 




970 


917 


843 


819 


1056 


794 


16 


1283 


1281 


1137 


918 


852 


872 


775 


993 


762 


17 


1368 


1361 


1204 


998 


944 


858 


832 


1056 


800 


18 


1400 


1385 


1268 


1050 


996 


947 


920 


1096 


825 


19 


1232 


1226 


1102 


898 


837 


782 


756 


948 


725 


20 


1257 


1264 


1125 


947 


896 


831 


805 


981 


755 


21 


1340 


1330 


1192 


966 


919 


832 


823 


1020 


780 


22 


1354 


1348 


1219 


1000 


940 


861 


850 


1056 


790 


23 


1335 


1327 


1200 


977 


926 


821 


805 


1029 


787 


24 


1330 


1325 


1218 


946 


919 


848 


809 


1031 


790 


25 


1313 


1282 


1169 


928 


889 


849 


827 


1005 


782 


26 


1394 


1354 


.... 


1033 


1003 


919 


907 


1077 


829 


27 


1410 


1406 




1010 


991 


908 


872 


1076 


829 


28 


1332 


1323 


1191 


991 


912 


854 


821 


1044 


809 


29 


1267 


1251 


1144 


920 


889 


807 


748 


955 


744 


30 
31 


1339 


1341 


1187 


988 


955 


841 


821 


1057 


790 


1213 


1207 


1064 


880 


811 


763 


737 


924 


693 


32 


1401 


1376 




1048 


951 


907 


886 


1081 


796 


33 


1365 


1353 


1227 


1005 


956 


892 


851 


1039 


783 


34 


1333 


1301 


1186 


956 


880 


808 


777 


1011 


781 


35 


1274 


1247 




921 


884 


829 


804 


980 


737 


36 


1281 


1253 


1139 


925 


898 


822 


799 


975 


743 


37 


1372 


1346 


1235 


995 


921 


855 


822 


1066 


833 


38 


1306 


1309 


1165 


942 


902 


813 


769 


1012 


775 


39 


1333 


1331 


1196 


963 


903 


840 


809 


1040 


810 


40 


1328 


1301 


1189 


957 


909 


845 


825 


1007 


771 



APPENDIX 



175 



No. 


Ht. 
Incis. 


Ht. 
Acrom. 


Ht. 
Nipple 


Ht. 
Umbil. 


Ht. 
Sp-il. 


Ht. 
Troch. 


Ht. 
S-pub. 


Ht. 
Olecr. 


Ht. 
St-rad. 


41 


1322 


1290 


1199 


987 


942 


869 


846 


1019 


759 


42 


1392 


1363 




1009 


972 


907 


880 


1091 


832 


43 


1316 


1300 


1167 


957 


919 


828 


808 


1033 


808 


44 


1363 


1338 


1226 


1039 


937 


887 


875 


1028 


768 


45 


1306 


1282 




924 


883 


814 


793 


1061 


778 


46 


1364 


1330 




992 


926 


835 


808 


1051 


812 


47 


1281 


1260 


1152 


927 


860 


808 


774 


998 


756 


48 


1405 


1385 


1236 


1023 


988 


910 


881 


1091 


825 


49 


1391 


1370 




999 


964 


883 


862 


1093 


843 


50 


1324 


1310 




980 


936 


890 


877 


1023 


789 


51 


1307 


1290 


1162 


943 


892 


842 


790 


1017 


784 


52 


1313 


1319 




1015 


927 


872 


838 


1020 


785 


53 


1372 


1371 


1246 


1029 


995 


893 


875 


1080 


836 


54 


1355 


1321 


1235 


1004 


926 


860 


841 


1066 


809 


55 


1411 


1387 


1270 


1042 


992 


919 


904 


1063 


809 


56 


1360 


1341 




923 


832 


832 


824 


1074 


798 


57 


1436 


1414 


1280 


1080 


1013 


980 


897 


1104 


857 


58 


1268 


1230 


1137 


907 


859 


806 


773 


977 


755 


59 


1394 


1369 


1233 


998 


924 


885 


843 


1088 


837 


60 


1349 
1300 


1324 




1004 


955 


895 


868 


1039 


777 


61 


1290 


1181 


919 


870 


827 


799 


1026 


800 


62 


1400 


1362 


1256 


1010 


953 


881 


856 


1041 


802 


63 


1325 


1302 


1189 


968 


925 


885 


846 


1043 


800 


64 


1360 


1361 


1233 


1020 


964 


891 


885 


1080 


838 


65 


1361 


1349 


1248 


1030 


966 


911 


879 


1055 


822 


66 


1306 


1294 


1170 


964 


914 


875 


836 


1002 


749 


67 


1360 


1348 


1242 


1007 


934 


878 


835 


1045 


803 


68 


1310 


1292 


1173 


976 


916 


864 


816 


1012 


773 


69 


1371 


1355 


1224 


1024 


970 


S07 


857 


1061 


820 


70 


1402 


1370 




1000 


964 


924 


894 


1115 


831 


71 


1302 


1282 




960 


890 


852 


800 


1014 


789 


72 


1315 


1310 




997 


959 


884 


858 


1039 


788 


73 


1393 


1353 


1222 


1009 


931 


868 


847 


1078 


834 


74 


1354 


1316 




961 


899 


849 


820 


1050 


799 


75 


1342 


1326 


1222 


973 


948 


895 


855 


1062 


807 


76 


1361 


1336 


1236 


1026 


969 


905 


889 


1042 


798 


77 


1284 


1258 


. . . 


906 


874 


818 


762 


1006 


769 


78 


1268 


1242 




928 


874 


826 


768 971 


755 


79 


1360 


1335 


1235 


1000 


909 


884 


834 1081 


844 


80 


1387 


1375 


1243 


1044 


980 


950 


942 1062 


815 



176 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



No. 


Ht. 
Ineis. 


Ht. 
Acrom. 


Ht. 
Nipple 


Ht. 
Umbil. 


Ht. 
Sp-il. 


Ht. 
Troch. 


Ht. 
S-pub. 


Ht. 
Olecr. 


Ht. 

St-rad. 


81 


1371 


1347 


1211 


1000 


965 


923 


934 


1047 


820 


82 


1350 


1339 


1192 


1020 


938 


890 


840 


1068 


828 


83 


1310 


1290 


1191 


985 


920 


869 


817 


1015 


777 


84 


1354 


1340 


1213 


983 


915 


865 


821 


1041 


814 


85 


1326 


1316 




965 


910 


852 


813 


1027 


790 


86 


1374 


1333 


1206 


1046 


990 


893 


865 


1052 


810 


87 


1387 


1337 




1020 


957 


902 


876 


1090 


830 


88 


1310 


1300 


1175 


969 


910 


861 


814 


1037 


780 


89 


1319 


1301 


1210 


974 


912 


860 


855 


1019 


792 


90 


1342 


1310 


1199 


957 


900 


845 


850 


1050 


825 


91 


1366 


1361 




996 


940 


858 


832 


1008 


828 


92 


1274 


1268 


1160 


945 


900 


852 


932 


973 


748 


93 


1295 


1269 


1143 


931 


900 


850 


830 


1004 


746 


94 


1361 


1337 


1207 


1015 


943 


893 


857 


1048 


807 


95 


1247 


1238 


1111 


950 


865 


814 


770 


977 


733 


96 


1272 


1272 




933 


860 


842 


789 


1005 


760 


97 


1301 


1298 




947 


898 


835 


820 


1010 


758 


98 


1336 


1322 




973 


930 


865 


855 


1021 


790 


99 


1344 


1300 




1012 


952 


895 


895 


1020 


762 


100 


1316 


1310 




979 


909 


875 


844 


1047 


772 



APPENDIX 





Height 


Breadth 


Length, breadth 




Ht. 
Dact. 


Ht. 
Knee 


Ht. 

Mall. 


Biacr. 


Crist. 


Troch. 


Mamm. 


Foot 


Spin. 


Th-width 


1 


669 


469 


80 385 


281 


255 


217 


254 






2 


638 


405 


81 


370 


289 


265 


184 


250 






3 


608 


417 


68 


369 


270 


217 


212 


230 






4 


565 


372 


72 


345 


270 


251 


193 


223 






5 


547 


395 


70 


344 


246 


220 


196 


219 






6 


647 


403 


63 


329 


281 


229 


201 


248 






7 


617 


424 


81 


368 250 


211 


185 


236 






8 


619 


382 


75 


363 250 


211 


185 


236 






9 


602 


382 


71 


326 266 


240 




251 






10 


577 


410 


68 


382 285 


243 


195 


252 






11 


594 


406 


57 


369 


248 


231 


211 


235 






12 


649 


461 


85 


372 


313 


249 


216 


267 






13 


644 


455 


81 


345 


299 


249 


196 239 






14 


653 


456 


7 79 


354 


225 


258 


242 






15 


622 


431 


71 


363 


235 


239 


241 






16 


606 


412 


65 


322 


210 


209 


177 


207 






17 


628 


438 


85 


356 


270 


283 


186 


245 






18 


621 462 


86 


385 


294 


280 


211 


252 






19 


564 392 


73 


349 


268 


273 


220 


226 






20 


593 


389 


82 


376 


263 


261 


185 


230 






21 


612 


396 


72 


370 


258 


215 


215 


247 




22 


611 


405 


71 


391 


305 


250 


184 


250 






23 


617 


414 


72 


369 


262 


248 


188 


242 






24 


623 


431 


69 


355 


295 


232 


184 


237 






25 


622 


435 


68 


336 


294 


241 


208 


220 






26 


616 


449 


87 


345 


270 


227 




241 




27 


650 


429 


73 


376 


291 


254 




246 




28 


636 415 


72 


352 


264 


236 


203 


230 






29 


566 


391 


79 


249 


255 


229 


188 


229 






30 


608 


389 


74 


353 


244 


215 


183 


239 




31 


561 


353 


79 


302 


247 


210 


193 


223 






32 


623 


433 


83 


365 


290 


239 




240 






33 


618 


439 


89 


386 


269 


221 


221 


238 






34 


591 


408 


83 355 


257 


228 


208 


237 


215 


241 


35 


583 


387 


86 


337 


278 


221 




228 


235 


235 


36 


565 


375 


83 


324 


267 


227 


198 


230 


260 


230 


37 


634 


444 


95 


335 


207 


229 


204 


259 


252 


230 


38 


603 


409 


72 


342 


255 


230 170 


227 


232 


228 


39 


637 


413 


89 


321 


257 


239 


183 


230 


252 


222 


40 


591 


419 


86 


354 


284 


249 203 


240 


269 


239 



1-' 



178 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 





Height 


Breadth 


Length, breadth 


No. 


Ht. 
Dact. 


Ht. 
Knee 


Ht. 

Mall. 


Biacr. 


Crist. 


Troch. 


Mamm. 


Foot 


Spin. 


Th-width 


41 


572 


391 


87 


358 


255 


264 


185 


252 


250 


228 


42 


663 


438 


89 


362 


291 


258 




259 


252 


266 


43 


625 


374 


79 


335 


262 


238 


215 


248 


235 


246 


44 


594 


420 


88 


372 


242 


247 


194 


243 


219 


255 


45 


598 


380 


85 


373 


289 


307 




237 


255 


280 


46 


630 


431 


74 


357 


299 


275 




241 


259 


248 


47 


561 


367 


77 


340 


242 


223 


197 


230 


258 


230 


48 


669 


401 


85 


366 


269 


249 


185 


244 


245 


244 


49 


643 


420 


91 


359 


297 


247 




262 


270 


251 


50 


600 


409 


73 


344 


267 


218 




240 


253 


242 


51 


621 


391 


71 


327 


269 


247 


193 


222 


251 


237 


52 


598 


398 


85 


355 


271 


235 




233 


257 


257 


53 


647 


439 


86 


346 


251 


225 


162 


226 


259 


242 


54 


613 


396 


75 


337 


269 


234 


204 


237 


261 


224 


55 


618 


433 


87 


364 


295 


258 


195 


261 


255 


254 


56 


632 


385 


75 


362 


301 


280 




241 


287 


270 


57 


6S1 


432 


89 


369 


300 


265 


207 


253 


280 


266 


58 


589 


352 


66 


328 


249 


209 


181 


232 


241 


227 


59 


668 


410 


81 


349 


269 


221 


195 


239 


260 


231 


60 


605 


385 


80 


345 


278 


249 




238 


252 


260 


61 


625 


397 


72 


344 


256 


237 


189 


240 


250 


224 


62 


634 


410 


92 


381 


260 


237 


187 


273 


227 


230 


63 


627 


410 


85 


320 


280 


223 


165 


245 


270 


235 


64 


639 


442 


80 


337 


254 


205 


195 


251 


256 


236 


65 


621 


445 


80 


340 


255 


205 


190 


254 


250 


232 


66 


579 


405 


85 


335 


265 


233 


215 


255 


235 


244 


67 


602 


423 


84 


345 


254 


230 


187 


236 


255 


234 


68 


608 


401 


72 


370 


270 


220 


190 


252 


252 


270 


69 


634 


430 


92 


362 


258 


225 


196 


251 


247 


251 


70 


634 


428 


89 


369 


280 


242 




231 


263 


243 


71 


629 


405 


67 


344 


267 


232 




221 


260 


222 


72 


589 


404 


85 


329 


254 


219 




237 


240 


252 


73 


652 


409 


79 


360 


288 


225 


191 


236 


260 


248 


74 


611 


401 


78 


375 


290 


235 




252 


276 


260 


75 


614 


412 


94 


351 


285 


245 


204 


251 


245 


255 


76 


609 


429 


70 


330 


283 


212 


187 


235 


240 


220 


77 


610 


384 


76 


341 


278 


228 




219 


250 


255 


78 


580 


402 


70 


341 


268 


209 




227 


245 


233 


79 


672 


414 


82 


362 


278 


239 


190 


243 


280 


250 


80 


616 


460 


66 


350 


274 


240 


190 


242 


265 


255 



APPENDIX 



179 



No. 


Height 


Breadth 


Length, breadth 


Ht. 
Dact. 


Ht. 
Knee 


Ht. 
Mall. 


Biacr. 


Crist. 


Troch. 


Mamin. 


Foot 


Spin. 


Th-widtL 


81 


640 


420 


92 


344 


274 


211 


200 


244 


268 


280 


82 


660 


426 


80 


355 


270 


245 


220 


243 


258 


248 


83 


627 


398 


76 


340 


282 


205 


205 


231 


272 


220 


84 


627 


400 


73 


344 


269 


219 


186 


241 


275 


220 


85 


591 


398 


70 


341 


263 


240 




245 


248 


240 


86 


605 


425 


81 


380 


290 


220 


223 


254 


278 


241 


87 


656 


4Q5 


70 


340 


271 


221 




249 


258 


238 


88 


564 


407 


85 


347 


295 


222 


170 


239 


280 


235 


89 


624 


412 


68 


357 


272 


209 


250 


236 


249 


243 


90 


635 


417 


75 


341 


280 


230 


175 


238 


262 


225 


91 


663 


439 


69 


350 


295 


260 




242 


280 


250 


92 


567 


407 


76 


345 


289 


218 


181 


228 


280 


230 


93 


602 


431 


86 


310 


275 


216 


215 


228 


255 


222 


94 


603 


414 


67 


370 


286 


227 


201 


257 


268 


241 


95 


562 


390 


75 


339 


254 


219 


160 


227 


250 


225 


96 


585 


400 


90 


335 


281 


250 




262 


247 


227 


97 


592 


390 


76 


341 


284 


229 


. . . 


239 


279 


235 


98 


622 


422 


66 


347 


279 


243 




241 


270 


234 


99 


585 


423 


85 


365 


262 


218 


. . . 


247 


262 


255 


100 


603 


420 


70 


341 


275 


250 




239 


270 


238 



180 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 







Sitting heights 


Measurements of face and head 


No. 


Tli- 
depth 


























Sht. 


Vprm. Inst. 


Aero. 


Hlth. 


Hbth. 


Frbth. 


In orb. 


Zybrth. 








i 




















1 














1 




904 


651 


594 


587 


188 


149 


100 


34 


120 


2 




861 


631 


569 


547 


101 


143 


101 


28 


121 


3 




880 


629 


562 


556 


184 


137 


99 


28 


115 


4 




825 


605 


551 


531 


184 


150 


106 


32 


125 


5 




830 


581 


527 


522 


184 


152 


106 


30 


116 


6 




885 


645 


587 


561 


190 


149 


100 


31 


124 


7 




852 


639 


555 


548 


186 


J148 


107 


30 


122 


8 




857 


612 


550 


536 


188 


148 


103 


30 


116 


9 




853 


608 


563 


560 


191 


146 


96 


24 


111 


10 




875 


617 


570 


563 


191 


146 


106 


31 


125 


11 




836 


611 


537 


526 


175 


146 


99 


29 


112 


12 




897 


643 


589 


565 


193 


139 


98 


34 


119 


13 




953 


710 


636 


629 


196 


141 


101 


28 


116 


14 




870 


632 


569 


569 


185- 


148 


105 


31 


111 


15 




868 


634 


585 


584 


188 


140 


111 


30 


126 


16 




835 1 590 


568 


557 


180 


141 


103 


26 


90 


17 




890 


628 


565 


562 


181 


149 


102 


29 


120 


18 




875 


628 


577 


567 


187 


151 


106 


32 


124 


19 




840 


601 


533 


527 


186 


146 


102 


31 


112 


20 




827 


589 


540 


525 


196 


154 


103 


33 


121 


21 




803 


658 


608 


598 


187 


144 


104 


31 


125 


22 




890 


643 


583 


562 


193 


151 


104 


35 


119 


23 




889 


646 


583 


561 


188 


155 


108 


33 


118 


24 




869 


640 


562 


561 


189 


140 


96 


29 


111 


25 




861 


637 


561 


556 


183 


145 


100 


28 


116 


26 




868 


628 


558 


539 


185 


151 


97 


30 


118 


27 




903 


655 


589 


585 


194 


143 


101 


28 


120 


28 




864 


628 


576 


539 


186 


144 


99 


29 


116 


29 




833 


592 


529 


508 


177 


148 


105 


33 


113 


30 




861 


630 


549 


543 


178 


145 


102 


27 


112 


31 




843 


600 


539 


520 


182 


148 


103 


32 


114 


32 




861 


640 


571 


551 


185 


146 


107 


29 


123 


33 




867 


629 


555 


537 


187 


150 


99 


27 


113 


34 


172 


914 


668 


618 


589 


188 


146 


104 


30 


123 


35 


173 


821 


591 


537 


510 


191 


150 


97 


29 


121 


36 


144 


825 


582 


541 


514 


194 


143 


99 


30 


109 


37 


182 


896 


666 


603 


579 


187 


147 


105 


34 


122 


38 


165 843 


621 


546 


545 


180 


148 


104 


30 


115 


39 


168 860 


613 


559 


555 


183 


147 


96 


33 


115 


40 


165 853 623 


552 


529 


193 


150 


100 


30 


120 



APPENDIX 



181 







Sitting heights 


. Measurements of face and head 


No. 


Th- 
depth 




























Sht. 


Vprm. 


Inst. 


Aero. 


Hlth. 


Hbth 


Frbth. 


Inorb. 


Zybrth. 


41 


175 


847 


623 


549 


510 


180 


147 


104 


30 


118 


42 


183 


883 


627 


572 


552 


194 


153 


103 


32 


107 


43 


184 


843 


623 


555 


525 


187 


146 


106 


33 


124 


44 


192 


853 


611 


559 


530 


196 


144 


104 


34 


121 


45 


215 


873 


638 


581 


555 


187 


150 


104 


30 


124 


46 


179 


781 


634 


569 


545 


192 


152 


108 


32 


123 


47 


175 


863 


629 


562 


539 


185 


147 


97 


31 


106 


48 


171 


889 


649 


582 


556 


189 


143 


103 


29 


124 


49 


168 


908 


680 


595 


575 


188 


146 


105 


27 


123 


50 


180 


840 


620 


547 


537 


182 


146 


92 


29 


111 


51 


172 


849 


613 


578 


545 


174 


151 


95 


28 


110 


52 


185 


854 


622 


556 


534 


180 


143 


105 


30 


113 


53 


149 


885 


629 


569 


678 


188 


145 


102 


36 


116 


54 


171 


861 


629 


570 


533 


181 


147 


99 


31 


115 


55 


208 


885 


635 


584 


555 


197 


145 


102 


32 


122 


56 


230 


877 


632 


585 


555 


202 


155 


109 


28 


125 


57 


197 


939 


700 


616 


590 


188 


151 


107 


33 


123 


58 


160 


836 


622 


562 


520 


173 


150 


99 


34 


114 


59 


179 


920 


676 


604 


567 


183 


147 


99 


28 


117 


60 


165 


833 


612 


545 


516 


194 


146 


97 


32 


115 


61 


167 


839 


607 


550 


530 


186 


142 


95 


30 


' 109 


62 


173 


884 


636 


581 


546 


187 


144 


98 


29 


111 


63 


166 


824 


599 


552 


523 


174 


144 


100 


25 


109 


64 


175 


840 


613 


530 


530 


185 


142 


96 


27 


116 


65 


175 


848 


620 


551 


539 


185 


142 


97 


28 


116 


66 


169 


834 


609 


538 


525 


184 


147 


104 


30 


119 


67 


139 


855 


607 


554 


550 


180 


145 


103 


31 


114 


68 


170 


836 


610 


540 


520 


188 


150 


103 


30 


119 


69 


168 


880 


640 


565 


548 


193 


153 


107 


33 


121 


70 


167 


880 


634 


590 


554 


192 


152 


110 


31 


121 


71 


160 


860 


627 


555 


529 


190 


147 


97 


30 


104 


72 


176 


840 


607 


528 


518 


190 


140 


104 


27 


117 


73 


179 


916 


677 


627 


587 


190 


146 


100 


31 


118 


74 


174 


899 


637 


584 


554 


186 


154 


107 


31 


121 


75 


185 


878 


640 


567 


551 


196 


156 


108 


36 


122 


76 


175 


842 


600 


535 


506 


187 


150 


104 


32 


114 


77 


171 


839 


610 


541 


526 


178 


140 


101 


30, 


109 


78 


168 


830 


581 


526 


512 


181 


145 


101 


30 


109 


79 


165 


907 


660 


585 


561 


185 


148 


106 


34 


120 


80 


180 


893 


638 


593 


577 


200' 


157 


114 


35 


133 



182 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 







Sitting heights 


Measurements of head and face. 


No. 


Th- 
depth 


























Sht. 


Vprm. 


Inst. 


Aero. 


Hlth. 


Hbth. 


Frbth. 


Inorb. 


Zybrth. 


81 


182 


873 


641 


560 


540 


191 


150 


102 


29 


116 


82 


173 


840 


622 


555 


540 


183 


147 


102 


28 


108 


83 


165 


846 


602 


550 


535 


185 


149 


100 


35 


113 


84 


176 


892 


641 


590 


575 


178 


149 


103 


33 


118 


85 


180 


856 


621 


556 


534 


186 


150 


97 


35 


113 


86 


175 


887 


630 


558 


525 


194 


145 


98 


29 


117 


87 


161 


897 


661 


591 


541 


192 


150 


102 


34 


116 


88 


160 


855 


620 


545 


527 


180 


143 


98 


32 


114 


89 


154 


842 


621 


546 


519 


176 


144 


102 


32 


123 


90 


160 


851 


614 


546 


521 


173 


146 


94 


28 


106 


91 


190 


893 


663 


603 


597 


191 


150 


120 


30 


130 


92 


139 


811 


600 


530 


515 


189 


145 


101 


30 


114 


93 


154 


824 


592 


534 


514 


186 


146 


104 


31 


118 


94 


185 


885 


636 


576 


552 


189 


152 


107 


32 


119 


95 


165 


824 


579 


526 


526 


184 


138 


97 


30 


110 

























96 


167 


856 


626 


570 


570 


132 


142 


103 


32 


104 


97 


167 


835 


613 


557 


547 


187 


144 


101 


36 


115 


98 


182 


856 


627 


572 


544 


183 


143 


101 


31 


117 


99 


165 


947 


608 


543 


500 


192 


144 


111 


30 


107 


100 j 187 


841 


820 


542 j 542 


181 


149 


103 


35 


114 



APPENDIX 



183 





Measurements of head and face 


Color of 


No. 


Brdth. 
BMML 


Chin 
to 
hair 


Chin 
to 
nas. 


Nas- 

I'fOS. 


Lth. 
nose 


Brdth. 
nose 


Lth. 
ear 


Brdth. 
ear 


Eyes 


Hair 


Skin 


1 


. 94 


174 


Ill 


62 


48 


32 


64 


32 


11 


10 


7 


2 


106 


163 


98 


62 


44 


28 


59 


31 


5 


4 


6 


3 


96 


173 


110 


73 


53 


31 


62 


34 


13 


7 


7 


4 


104 


164 


108 


71 


50 


35 


58 


27 


7 


5 


8 


5 


97 


175 


111 


69 


52 


33 


56 


30 


12 


8 


3 


6 


102 


189 


119 


76 


54 


31 


60 


29 


14 


8 


3 


7 


99 


169 


110 


67 


52 


33 


58 


27 


6 


10 


7 


8 


96 


172 


116 


73 


53 


29 


59 


28 


4 


5 


8 


9 


99 


174 


111 


69 


49 


30 


56 


35 


14 


8 


9 


10 


102 


172 


108 


69 


49 


31 


60 


30 


3 


5 


9 


11 


94 


176 


110 


69 


49 


31 


56 


31 


15 


9 


9 


12 


98 


174 


119 


72 


51 


32 


55 


33 


15 


8 


3 


13 


101 


172 


113 


72 


55 


33 


63 


30 


4 


7 


9 


14 


90 


172 


107 


67 


42 


30 


58 


29 


13 


9 


7 


15 


109 


175 


110 


72 


46 


33 


62 


30 


14 


12 


9 


16 


86 


173 


108 


71 


48 


26 


61 


28 


16 


8 


2 


17 


90 


180 


110 


70 


50 


30 


56 


26 


13 


5 


9 


18 


108 


190 


120 


72 


52 


34 


60 


30 


15 


11 


10 


19 


98 


180 


115 


72 


52 


33 


57 


25 


7 


5 


11 


20 


106 


183 


119 


73 


48 


31 


64 


30 


16 


22 


9 


21 


96 


174 


108 


68 


50 


34 


55 


25 


12 


5 


9 


22 


106 


181 


115 


67 


48 


32 


56 


29 


15 


9 


2 


23 


99 


180 


115 


71 


52 


32 


59 


28 


6 


5 


7 


24 


94 


171 


110 


69 


51 


28 


58 


28 


7 


8 


3 


25 


99 


169 


111 


72 


56 


33 


58 


31 


4 


5 


3 


26 


99 


189 


132 


82 


. 58 


30 


53 


28 


8 


5 


7 


27 


101 


185 


123 


78 


58 


33 


64 


33 


12 


7 


3 


28 


98 


175 


117 


72 


53 


28 


59 


30 


6 


7 


11 


29 


. 95 


166 


108 


69 


55 


34 


52 


30 


7 


8 


3 


30 


93 


196 


124 


79 


55 


25 


60 


29 


5 


7 


10 


31 


97 


182 


118 


72 


58 


30 


56 


30 


12 


13 


3 


32 


108 


165 


117 


70 


53 


31 


64 


31 


7 


4 


10 


33 


97 


169 


113 


75 


58 


31 


54 


31 


15 


7 


7 


34 


103 


168 


113 


75 


53 


38 


59 


32 


3 


5 


11 


35 


97 


175 


112 


75 


56 


37 


57 


31 


6 


5 


10 


36 


105 


180 


117 


72 


53 


29 


56 


32 


11 


12 


3 


37 


96 


163 


109 


72 


56 


31 


54 


29 


7 


8 


14 


38 


89 


189 


118 


76 


59 


29 


60 


29 


7 


8 


7 


39 


98 


169 


109 


71 


54 


33 


55 


27 


12 


8 


3 


40 103 


185 


122 


75 


57 


36 


60 


30 


8 


9 


8 



184 



LABORATORY MANUAL OF ANTHROPOMETRY 



No. 


Measurements of head and face 


Color of 


Brdth. 
mand. 


Chin 
to 
hair 


Chin 
to 
nas. 


Nas- 
pros. 


Lth. 
nose 


Brdth. 
nose 


Lth. 
ear 


Brdth. 
ear 


Eyes 


Hair 


Skin 


41 


90 


170 


110 


67 


53 


29 


52 


32 


15 


4 


12 


42 


101 


185 


115 


78 


55 


32 


56 


27 


12 


10 


3 


43 


101 


175 


112 


69 


51 


32 


61 


31 


4 


5 


7 


44 


93 


171 


115 


75 


54 


32 


59 


28 


12 


9 


10 


45 


107 


162 


110 


63 


50 


35 


60 


30 


4 


5 


7 


46 


105 


173 


118 


76 


57 


34 


56 


30 


13 


7 


3 


47 


100 


175 


120 


74 


56 


33 


54 


28 


7 


8 


10 


48 


101 


171 


121 


75 


58 


28 


55 


27 


14 


8 


3 


49 


105 


185 


123 


78 


59 


31 


60 


31 


3 


5 


7 


50 


103 


172 


116 


74 


55 


30 


55 


29 


10 


5 


9 


51 


94 


175 


112 


67 


49 


33 


57 


30 


13 


8 


7 


52 


100 


160 


108 


69 


53 


33 


62 


32 


5 


5 


12 


53 


99 


176 


118 


62 


51 


31 


58 


30 


15 


7 


7 


54 


98 


179 


123 


73 


52 


31 


59 


30 


8 


4 


10 


55 


99 


181 


125 


74 


55 


35 


65 


33 


15 


26 


11 


56 


103 


187 


126 


83 


59 


36 


59 


28 


6 


5 


12 


57 


102 


169 


115 


74 


56 


33 


59 


31 


12 


7 


11 


58 


97 


177 


113 


69 


51 


34 


54 


30 


3 


5 


11 


59 


97 


176 


115 


71 


51 


34 


58 


28 


13 


8 


3 


60 


97 


175 


114 


73 


55 


30 


57 


30 


8 


8 


8 


61 


94 


163 


108 


69 


49 


31 


55 


26 


4 


5 


11 


62 


98 


179 


116 


73 


56 


31 


59 


33 


13 


9 


3 


63 


95 


167 


110 


70 


51 


30 


62 


30 


13 


7 


7 


64 


95 


188 


122 


76 


60 


28 


58 


29 


15 


8 


3 


65 


96 


185 


122 


76 


60 


29 


58 


31 


15 


8 


3 


66 


99 


170 


118 


71 


53 


29 


49 


26 


5 


4 


13 


67 


94 


168 


111 


73 


56 


29 


62 


30 


13 


7 


10 


68 


99 


167 


120 


75 


55 


30 


62 


26 


13 


8 


7 


69 


97 


177 


122 


77 


57 


34 


61 


27 


5 


9 


12 


70 


102 


180 


119 


75 


56 


32 


63 


31 


5 


6 


11 


71 


91 


180 


123 


74 


51 


32 


58 


29 


13 


8 


3 


72 


104 


176 


112 


68 


52 


30 


56 


26 


7 


9 


7 


73 


108 


181 


122 


76 


56 


37 


60 


30 


8 


26 


7 


74 


104 


183 


123 


75 


57 


32 


60 


30 


5 


5 


10 


75 


109 


171 


119 


75 


55 


36 


58 


30 


4 


4 


12 


76 


86 


187 


125 


74 


53 


31 


57 


25 


5 


6 


3 


77 


93 


184 


118 


76 


56 


28 


64 


30 


15 


8 


11 


78 


84 


165 


110 


73 


55 


30 


55 


25 


15 


25 


9 


79 


97 


182 


120 


76 


55 


33 


56 


29 


4 


7 


13 


80 


108 


184 


122 


75 


55 


34 


62 


30 


8 


9 


11 



APPENDIX 



185 





Measurements of head and face 


Color of 


No. 


Brdth. 
mand. 


Chin 
to 
hair 


Chin 
to 
nas. 


Nas- 
pros. 


Lth. 
nose 


Brdth. 
nose 


Lth. 
ear 


Brdth. 
ear 


Eyes 


Hair 


Skin 


81 


84 


186 


127 


76 


55 


30 


56 


33 


15 


8 


3 


82 


98 


175 


112 


71 


56 


29 


55 


30 


13 


7 


7 


83 


85 


182 


117 


74 


55 


33 


57 


31 


15 


8 


11 


84 


101 


168 


104 


65 


49 


35 


59 


28 


11 


6 


10 


85 


90 


176 


113 


72 


52 


33 


57 


28 


4 


4 


14 


86 


100 


185 


125 


73 


54 


35 


64 


30 


15 


9 


10 


87 


99 


184 


119 


72 


57 


30 


57 


34 


15 


9 


10 


88 


96 


179 


113 


73 


55 


35 


61 


29 


7 


5 


10 


89 


104 


165 


104 


65 


47 


33 


57 


31 


6 


13 


11 


90 


97 


177 


119 


72 


55 


33 


59 


30 


8 


8 


10 


91 


105 


183 


118 


69 


44 


33 


58 


29 


12 


7 


12 


92 


97 


165 


115 


74 


55 


32 


62 


29 


16 


7 


7 


93 


100 


171 


110 


71 


51 


31 


61 


27 


5 


9 


11 


94 


100 


183 


118 


76 


55 


32 


58 


28 


10 


10 


3 


95 


94 


162 


109 


67 


48 


29 


54 


32 


3 


5 


13 


96 


89 


175 


115 


71 


55 


31 


65 


33 


3 


5 


12 


97 


97 


173 


113 


72 


52 


33 


65 


29 


8 


4 


8 


98 


99 


187 


121 


73 


52 


32 


67 


31 


16 


8 


3 


99 


88 


186 


121 


77 


56 


28 


56 


27 


9 


5 


11 


100 


94 


170 


110 


67 


49 


32 


52 


26 


10 


8 


3 



INDEX 



Acanthion, 42, 47 

Acetabulum, diameters of, 112 

Acromion, 152, 155 

Acropodion, 152 

ADACHI, B., 4, 7, 105, 107, 109, 136 

ADACHI, MME, 4, 136 

Alare, 151 

Alveolo-condylar plane, 37 

Alveolon, 42 

Angle, or angles, facial, 4, 36, 71 

mandibular, 53 

of calcaneus, 142 

of femur, 128 

of hutaerus, 84-87 

of inclination of ilium, 114 

of inclination of pelvis, 115 

of inclination of sacrum, 115 

of pelvis, 114 

of radius 101, 102, 104 

of sacrum, 121 

of scapula, 82 

of skull, 69-76 

of talus, 139 

of tibia, 133-135 

of ulna, 92, 94, 95 

on head of living subject, 159, 160 

sub-pubic, 114 
An thropo meter, It. 12, 13 
Anthropometric instruments, list of, 8 
Apollo Belvidere, 1 
Arithmetical mean, 29 
Asterion, 42 
Auric ulare, 42 

Auriculo-bregmatic height, 50, 54 
Average, 29 



B 



Basilo-bregmatic height, 50 
Basion, 43 

Basion-bregma height line, 55, 57 
Basion-lambda line, 58 
BERTILLON, A., 2, 9, 10 
Biauricular breadth, 54 
Bicondylar breadth, 52 
Bigonial breadth, 52 



Bimastoid breadth, 50, 54 

Biometric methods, 26-33 

Biorbital breadth, 54 

Bizygomatic breadth, 50 

BOLK, 62 

BOULE, 80 

Brain weight, percentage of to cranial 

capacity, 62 
Bregma of living, 151 

of skull, 40, 43 
Bregma position line, 56, 58 
BROCA P., 1, 5, 13, 25, 37, 40, 48, 75, 87, 
145 



C 



Calcaneus, 140 

angles of, 142 

indices of, 142 

measurements of; 140, 141 
Calipers, 9 

Bertillon's type of, 10 

Flower's type of, 10, 11 
Calvarial base, 57 
Calvarial height line, 56, 58 
CAMPER, P., 4, 5, 36, 71 
Carpus, 108,109 
Cervicale, 152, 163 
Challenger expedition, 2, 4, 110 
CHARLES, H., 135 
Cheilion, 151 
Cheirometry, 35 

Clavicle, measurements of, 83, 84 
CLOQUET, J., 37, 38 
Clothing, weight of, 162 
Coccyx, 163 

Coefficient of variation, 32 
Collo-diaphyseal angle, of femur, 128 
Collo-diaphyseal angle, of radius. 101, 

102 

Condylion laterale, 43 
Condylion mediale, 43 
Condylo-diaphyseal angle, of femur, 128 
Conjugata diagonalis (skeleton), 111 
Conjugata externa (skeleton), 111 
Conjugata vera (skeleton), 111 
Control skull, 19 
Coronale, 43 



187 



188 



INDEX 



Coronion, 43 

Cranial arc, total, 55 

Cranial breadth, maximum, 49 

Cranial capacity, 52, 59-61 

Cranial height, 50 

Cranial length, maximum, 49, 56 

Cranio-basal length, 57 

Craniometer, 9 

Craniometry, 35, 40 

Craniophore, 10, 39 

Craniophore, cubic, 20, 21, 40 

Crinion, 151 

Cristal breadth, 29, 30, 31 

Cubital angle, of humerus, 86 

CUNNINGHAM, 78 

Cushion for holding skull, 22, 40 

CzEKANOWSKi, 3 



D 



Dacryon, 43 
Dactylion, 153, 155 
DE HOYOS, 3 
DERRY, 116, 118 
Deviation, 30 

average, 31, 32 

standard, 32 
Diagraph, of Martin, 24 
Diameters, of pelvic basin, 111 
Dioptograph, of Lucse, 23, 24 
Dispersion, coefficient of, 33 
Divergence of ilia, 115 
DUCKWORTH, 3, 7, 87, 158 
DWIGHT, 123 

E 

ECKER, 38 
Ectocanthion, 151 
EctoconcHon, 43 
Ectomolare, 43 
Endinion, 45 
Endocanthion, 151 
Endomolare, 44 
Euryon of living, 151 

of skull, 41, 44 
Extremum occiput, 47 



Face, of living, land marks of, 151, 152 
Facial angle, 4, 36, 71 

depth, 57 

length, superior, 57 
total, 58 



Femur, angles of, 128 

curvature of shaft of, 129 

indices of, 125-128 

measurements of, 122-124 
Fibula, indices of, 136 

measurements of, 136 
Finger-print system, 2 
FISCHER, E., x, 4, 7, 54, 88, 89, 90, 94, 

95, 97, 98, 102, 104, 105 
Flower's type of caliper, 10, 11, 82 
Foot, skeleton of, 136, 137 
Frankfort horizontal, 38, 40, 47, 48 
FRASSETTO, F., x, 3, 156, 158 
FREDERIC, 7 
French horizontal, 38 
Frequency curves, 27 
Frontal arc, 55 

breadth, greatest, 50 
least, 50 

chord, 55, 58 

perpendicular, 58 
Frontomalare orbitale, 44 

temporale, 44 
Frontotemporale of living, 5, 151 

of skull, 44, 47 



G 



G ALTON, F., 2 

GARSON, J. G., 38, 82 

Geneva, international agreement of, 157, 

158 
Genion, 44 

GlUPFRIDA-RUGGERI, 3 

Glabella, of living, 151 

of skull, 40, 44, 47 
Glabella-inion length, 49, 53 
Gnathion, of living, 151 

of skull, 44 

Gnathion-basion length, 54 
GODIN, 3 
GOLDSTEIN, 38 
Goniometer, clamp-on type of, 14 

Mollison's, 14-16 

stationary, 5 
Gonion, of living, 151 

of skull, 44 
Greatest frontal breadth, 50 

H 

HAMY, 3, 49 

Hand, bones of, 105-109 

HASEBE, 4, 78, 137 



INDEX 



189 



Head of living, landmarks of, 151, 152 
HENNIG, 110 
HENRY, E. R., 2 
HERVE, 3, 49 

HlLLEBRAND, 3 

Hip-girdle, 109 

His, 38 

Holder, universal, 22 

HOLTBT, 122 

Horizontal circumference of skull, 52, 54 

needle, 21 
Horizontals used in orientation of skull, 

35-40 

Hormion, 45 
HRDLICKA, 3 
Humerus, angles of, 84-87 

indices of, 84 

measurements of, 84 
HUMPHREY, 1 
HUNTINGTON, G. S., 105 
HUXLEY, 69 



Ilia, divergence of, 115 

Iliocristale, 153 

Iliospinale anterius, 153 

Iliospinale posterius, 153 

Ilium, length-breadth measurements, 112 

Inclination angle of pelvis, 115 

of sacrum, 115 

of ilium, 114 
Indian skulls, Southern New England, 

169, 170 

Indices, derived from the median sagittal 
craniogram, 68 

intermembral, 144-147 

method of computing, 26 

of calcaneus, 142 

of cranium, 62-65 

of face, 65-67 

of femur, 125-128 

of fibula, 136 

of humerus, 84 

of living body, 164-167 

of patella, 130 

of pelvic brim, 110, 113 

of sacrum, 118-121 

of scapula, 82 

of talus, 138 

of tibia, 131, 132 

of weight and capacity of cranium, 
69 

pelvic, 113 



Indices, pilastric, of femur, 125, 126 
platycnemic, of tibia, 131 
platymeric, of femur, 125, 126 
showing relations between cranium 
and face, 67, 68 

Inferior facial depth, 57 

Infradentale, 45, 46 

Inion, of living, 151, 163 
of skull, 40, 45 

Intermembral indices, 144-146 

International Congress of Anthropolo- 
gists (1906) ix, 3, 7, 38, 48, 49, 158 

International Congress of Anthropolo- 
gists, (1912), 157, 158 

Interorbital breadth,* 51, 54 

Intertuberal breadth, 111 

Ischium, length of, 1 12 



Joint-axis angle of ulna, 94 
K 

KLAATSCH, H., 122, 136 
Klition, 45, 48 

KNIGHT, MARIAN V., 169, 170 
KOGANEI, 4, 89, 110 



Labio men tale, 153 

Labrale inferius, 151 

Labrale superius, 151 

Lacrimale, 45 

Lambda, 45 

Lambda calvarial height, 58 

LAMONT, 129, 135 

Landmarks, of head and face, 151, 152 

of skull, 40-48 

of trunk and limbs, 152-155 
Lateral divergence angle of ulna, 95 
LAZARUS, 136 
Least frontal breadth, 50 
LEHMANN-NITSCHE, 4, 89, 99, 122, 131 
Length of limb bones relative to stature, 

147 

Limbs of living, landmarks of, 152-155 
Linguale, 46 
Lingulare, 46 
LISSAUER, 3, 23, 49 
Living subject, angles of head of, 159 

calculated measurements of, 163, 164 

girths on head of, 159, 160 



190 



INDEX 



Living subject, indices of, 164-167 

landmarks of, 151-155 

measurements on head of, 158, 159 

measurements of trunk and limbs 
of, 160-162 

weight of, 162 
LrvoN, 82 
LOHR, 116 
Lordosis, 76 
LOTH, E., 3, 143 
LUCAE, 23 
Lumbale, 1 63 
Lumbar , 77 

LTJSCHAN, v., 3, 49 . > r v 



M 



MACCURDY, G. G., 3 

MALL, F. B., 96 

Mandible, height of body of, 53 

thickness of body of, 53 
Mandibular angle, 53 

length, 55 

MANNERS-SMITH, 4, 137, 143 
MANOUVRIER, 3, 62, 147, 166 
MARRET, 3 

MARTIN, x, 11, 17, 18, 20, 21, 24, 25, 61, 
63, 66, 82, 86, 87, 129, 130, 136, 
145, 146, 151 
Mastoidale, of living, 151 

of skull, 46 
Maxillary breadth, 55 
Maxillo-alveolar breadth, 51 
Maxillo-alveolar length, 51 
Maxillofrontale, 46 
MA YET, 3 

Mean, arithmetical, 29 
Measurements, calculated, of living sub- 
ject, 163, 164 

of calcaneus, 140 

of femur, 122-124 

of fibula, 136 

of head of living, 158-160 

of humerus, 84 

of living, technique of, 155-158 

of patella, 129, 130 

of trunk and limbs of living, 160-162 

of sacrum, llti-118 

of scapula, 80-82 

of skull, 49-55 

of talus, 1 8 

of tibia, 130, 131 
Mentale, 46 
Mesosternale, 151, 153 



Metacarpale laterale, 153 

Metacarpale mediale, 153 

Metatarsale laterale, 153 

Metatarsale mediale, 153 

Metatarsals, 143 

Metopion, 152 

Midvalue, of a group, 29 

MOCHI, 3 

Mode, in a frequency curve, 29 

MOLLISON, 14H6, 82, 131 

Monaco, international agreement of, x, 3, 

48, 49 
MORTON, ix 

MUSGROVE, 3 

N 

NAGEL, 96 
Nasal breadth, 50 
Nasal length, 50 
Nasion, of living, 152 

of skull, 47 

Nasion-basion line, 50, 55 
Nasion-gnathion line, 50 
Nasion-inion line, 54 
Nasion-lambda line, 58 
Nasion-prosthion line, 50 
Nasospinale, 42, 47, 48, 50 
Novara Expedition, 2 

O 

Obelion, 47 

Obturator foramen, diameters of, 112 

Occipital arc, 55 

Occipital breadth, 55 

Occipital chord, 55, 58 

Occipital foramen, length and breadth of, 

51 

Occipitale, 47 

Olecranal fossa, perforation of, 87 
Olecrano-coronoid angle, of ulna, 92 
Omphalion, 153 
Ophryon, of living, 152 

of skull, 47, 48 
Opisthion, 47 
Opisthocranion, of living, 152 

of skull, 44, 45, 47 
Orale, 47 

Orbital breadth, 51, 54 
Orbital height, 51 
Orbitale of living, 152 

of skull, 47 



INDEX 



191 



Orbito-alveolar height, 51 

Orientation of skull, 35-40 

Os coxa), length and breadth of, 112 

Os pubis, length of, 112 

OSAWA, 4, 110 

Ossa coxa), 109, 110-116 

Ossa innominata (see Ossa coxae). 

Osteometric board of Broca, 13 

Osteometry, 35 

Osteophore of Wetzel, 22 

Otobasion inferius, 152 

Otobasion superius, 152 



Palatal breadth, 51 
Palatal length, 51 
PAPILLAULT, ix, 3, 49, 158 
Parallelograph, 16-19 
Parietal arc, 55 
Parietal chord, 55, 58 
Parietal perpendicular, 58 
PARSONS, 83, 122, 123 
Patella, indices of, 130 

measurements of, 116 
Peabody Museum, Harvard University, 

54 
Pelvic basin, depth of, 112 

angles, 114 

brim index, 110, 113 

height, breadth, and depth, 110 

indices, 113 , 

skeleton, 109 
Pelvimeter, 10, 110 
Pelvis, sexual differences in, 116 
Perigraph of Lissauer, 23, 25 
PFITZNER, W., 105, 107, 137 
Phalanges, of foot, 143 

of hand, 107, 108 
Phalangion, 153 
Physiological length, of femur, 122 

of radius, 98 

of tibia, 134 

of ulna, 88 

Pilastric index, of femur, 125, 126 
PITTARD, 3, 49 

Platycnemic index, of tibia, 131 
Platymeric index, of femur, 125, 126 
Podometry, 35 
Pogonium, 47 
Porion, 47 

Position of living subject, 155-158 
Postaurale, 152 
Pozzi, 3, 49 



Preaurale, 152 
Pronasale, 152 
Prosphenium, 47 
Prosthion, of living, 152 
of skull, 45, 47, 48 
Prosthion-basion line, 50 
Pternion, 153 
Pteryon, 41, 47 
Pubic symphysis, length of, 112 



R 



Radiale, 1^4, 155 

Radius, 9o A 05 

RADLAUER, 4, 117, 118, 119, 120 

RAHON, 149 

Ramus of mandible, breadth, 52 

Ramus of mandible, length, 52 

REICHER, 4, 137, 140, 141 

Rhinion, 48 

Ribs, 80 

RIVET, 3, 158 

Rod compass, 12, 13 

ROLLET, 147 



8 



ST. HILAIRE, G. DE, 36, 37 
Sacral inclination angle, 115 
Sacrum, 109 

angles of, 121 

indices of, 118-121 

measurements of, 116-118' 
Sagittal cranial arc, 51 
SAWALISCHIN, MARIE, 65 
Scapula, angles of, 82 

indices of, 82 

measurements of, 80-82 

SCHLAGINHAUFEN, O., X, 3, 21, 54, 

158 

SCHWALBE, G., 6, 7, 58, 70, 80 
Sciatic tuber, 163 

Sculptors of Greece and Rome, 1, 4 
SERGI, G., 3, 6, 49 
SEWELL, S., 4, 137, 139 
Sexual differences in pelvic bones, 

116 

Skull, angles of, 69-76 
horizontals of, 35-40 
landmarks of, 40-48 
acanthion, 42, 47 
alveolon, 42 
auriculare, 42 



192 



INDEX 



Skull, landmarks of, basion, 43 
bregma, 43 
condylion laterale, 43 
condylion mediale, 43 
coronale, 43 
coronion, 43 
dacryon, 43 
ectoconchion, 43 
ectomolare, 43 
endinion, 45 
endomolare, 44 
euryon, 44 

frontomalare orbitale, 44 
frontomalare temporale, 44 
frontotemporale, 44, 47 
glabella, 44, 47 
gnathion, 44 
gonion, 44 
hormion, 45 
infradentale, 45, 46 
inion, 45 
klition, 45, 48 
lacrimale, 45 
lambda, 45 
linguale, 46 
lingulare, 46 
mastoidale, 46 
maxillofrontale, 46 
mentale, 46 
nasion, 47 
nasospinale, 47, 18 
obelion, 47 
occipitale, 47 
ophryon, 47, 48 
opisthion, 47 
opisthocranion, 44, 45, 47 
orale, 47 
orbitale, 47 
pogonion,! 47 
porion, 4? 
prosphenion, 47 
prosthion, 47, 48 
pteryon, 47 
rhinion, 48 
sphenoidale, 48 
staphylion, 48 
stephanion, 48 
subspinale, 48 
supraglabellare, 48 
tylio , 45, 48 
vertex, 48 
zygion, 48 
zygomaxillare, 48 
measurements of, 4955 



Skull, norms of, 39, 40 

orientation of, 35-40 
Smith College students, measurements 
of, 171-185 

SOLLAS, 3 

Somatometry, 35 
Spherion, 154 
Spinal breadth, 111 
Spino-symphyseal plane, 110 
Standard deviation, 32 
Stereograph, of Broca, 25 
Sternum, 80 
Stomion, 152 
Stylion, 154, 155 
Subaurale, 152 
Subnasale, 152, 163 
Subpubic angle, 114 
Superaurale, 152 
Superior facial length, 57 
Supracondyloid notch, 87 
Suprasternale, 154, 163 
Symphyseal height, of mandible, 52 
Symphysion, 154, 163 



Table, leveling, 22 
Talus, angles of, 139 

indices of, 138 

measurements of, 138 

orientation of, 137 
Tape measure, 13 
Tarsus, 142, 143 
Thelion, 154, 156 
THOMSON, 135 
Tibia, angles of, 133-135 

indices of, 131, 132 

measurements of, 130, 131 
Tibiale, 154 
TOPINARD, 25, 75 
TOROK, A. v., 5, 7 
Torsion, of femur, angle of, 128 

of humerus, angle of, 84 

of radius, angle of, 104 
Tragion, 152 
Tragus, 163 

Transverse cranial arc, 52 
Trichion, 152 
Trochanterion, 154 

Trunk of living, landmarks of, 152-155 
Tuberculare, 152 
TURNER, W., 4, 76, 77, 78, 82, 88, 99, 

110, 113, 114, 122, 145 
Tylion, 45, 48 



INDEX 



193 



u 

UHLBACH, 105, 107, 108, 136 
Ulna, 88-98 



Variation, coefficient of, 32, 33 
range of, 31 

VERNEAU, 3, 49 

Vertebrae, volume of, 78, 79 

Vertebral column, 76 

Vertex, 48, 152 

VIBCHOW, H., 137, 144 

VOGT, 75 

VOLKOV, 3, 4, 136, 143, 144 

Volume, of cranial cavity, 19 
of orbit of eye, 19 
of vertebrae, 78, 79 



W 



WALDEYER, 3, 49 

WASHINGTON, MARGARET, 171-185 

Weight of body, 19, 20, 162 

of clothing, 162 
WEISSGERBER, 3 
" WELCKER, H., 61, 75 
WENTWORTH, B., 2 
WETZEL, 22, 78 
WHITE, 1 



ZAAIJER, 110 
Zygion, of living, 152 

of skull, 48 
Zygomaxillare, 48